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Articles by R.A. Shehu
Total Records ( 9 ) for R.A. Shehu
  A.N. Ukwuani , M.G. Abukakar , R.A. Shehu and L.G. Hassan
  The pulp extract of Tamarindus indica is used by traditional herbalists as a purgative, drug vehicle and antiobesity agent. The effect of 28 days administration of Tamarindus indica pulp extract on the body weight and lipid profile of the rat was evaluated. There was a significant increase in the weight of the control compared to the treated which significantly decreased (p<0.05) especially the rats given higher doses (2700 to 4500 mg kg-1 body weight). Serum cholesterol and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) revealed a significant decrease (p<0.05) while High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides increased in the controlled group compared to the control. Xenical treated group was not significantly different (p<0.05) from the control. Triglycerides significantly increased (p<0.05) and LDL significantly decreased (p<0.05) in the pulp extract treated group as compared to xenical treated group.
  R.A. Umar , S.W. Hassan , M.J. Ladan , I.K. Matazu , B. Shehu , R.A. Shehu , L.G. Muhammed and F.I. Molabo
  We studied the effects of acute and sub-chronic oral administration of nevirapine, lamivudine and stavudine on liver function in albino rats. Acute administration of nevirapine resulted in significant (p<0.05) increases in activities of Aspartate amino transferase (AST) and Alanine amino transferase (ALT). Total proteins, albumin and globulin were significantly lowered. Upon sub-chronic administration of nevirapine, only AST and ALT activities were significantly raised. Acute administration of lamivudine was associated with significantly (p<0.05) lower albumin and globulin and higher total bilirubin and conjugated bilirubin levels. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in liver function profiles associated with sub-chronic administration of the drug. However, acute and sub-chronic administrations of stavudine were not associated with significant (p>0.05) changes in liver function profiles. We conclude that while the use of stavudine is safe, acute and sub-chronic oral administration of nevirapine and lamivudine are associated with hepatotoxicity and hepatoprotective agents should be incorporated in the treatment regimens employing these drugs to avert life-threatening complications.
  M.G. Abukakar , A.N. Ukwuani and R.A. Shehu
  The phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of aqueous pulp extract of Tamarindus indica were studied. The aqueous pulp extract of this plant was obtained using hot water extraction method. The antibacterial activity of aqueous pulp extract of this plantwas carried out against four bacteria; Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi by disc diffusion method. Phytochemical constituents present in the extract were found to include saponins (2.2%), alkaloids (4.32%) and glycosides (1.59%). Aqueous pulp extract of Tamarindus indica showed antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria in the order of sensitivity as Staphylococcus aureus>Escherichia coli>Pseudomonas aeruginosa with the exception salmonella typhi. The antibacterial activity of aqueous pulp extract on Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive at 80, 120, 140, 160 and 180 mg mL-1 of extract with 0.2, 0.3, 0.6, 0.8 and 10.0 mm zones of inhibition while Escherichia coli revealed 0.2, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mm zones of inhibition at 120, 140, 160 and 180 mg mL-1 of extract, respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was only sensitive at 140, 160 and 180 mg mL-1 of the extract with 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mm zones of inhibition.
  H.L. Muhammad , R.A. Shehu , L.S. Bilbis and S.M. Dangoggo
  Pollution by heavy metals deserves a special attention because of their high toxicities and persistence in aquatic environment, especially with respect to such ecosystems that receive chronic inputs of these metals. Physicochemical properties such as pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) that can influence the availability of the metals in aquatic environment were investigated. Water, sediment and floodplain samples were digested by standard laboratory methods. Metal analyses on water, sediment and flood plain samples were carried out by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). On the whole, the pH of water, sediment and floodplain samples were in the range of neutrality to a little alkalinity (6.52-7.70). The Dissolved Oxygen (DO) for the two seasons were significantly (p>0.05) low in all the study sites. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) for Rivers Bunsuru and Gagare were also significantly (p>0.05) low when compared with WHO standard of 7.0 mg L-1. Rima River and Goronyo Dam had BOD (p<0.05) on the high side. Except for Rima River, all other rivers had Cu concentrations significantly (p<0.05) high. Lead (Pb) concentrations during the rainy season sampling from River Rima and Goronyo Dam were present above the WHO acceptable limit of 2.0 μg g-1. Other mineral elements and Cd were however within the WHO limits. Significant levels of Pb in water, sediment and floodplain samples mean possible Pb toxicity to aquatic organisms and by implication man through food chain. Presence of Cd even at WHO acceptable limit is at the potential risk of bioaccumulation.
  R.A. Shehu , S.A. Onasanya , N. Ursula and M. Kinta
  The study examined the relationship between the nutritional lifestyle of rural and urban people of Kaduna state, Nigeria. The nutritional lifestyle examined include the difference in proteins, calories, vitamins and minerals consumption by the rural and urban people of Kaduna state, Nigeria. It also examined their attitude towards the consumption of natural and refined food products. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study. The population consisted of all individual age 16 years and above living in both rural and urban areas of Kaduna state, Nigeria as at the time of the study. Stratified and cluster random sampling techniques were used to select samples for the study. A total of 1350 randomly selected samples were used for the study. A structured questionnaire, developed and pilot tested with a reliability analysis scale of 0.92r was used for the study. The data collected were statistically analyzed using t-test. All the hypothesis generated were subjected to statistical analysis. The result showed that significant difference exists in the calories, natural and refined food products consumed by rural and urban people of Kaduna state, Nigeria. It also reveals that rural and urban people of Kaduna state, Nigeria are not significantly different in their nutritional lifestyle. The researchers recommends, among others that appropriate health education interventions be put in place in other to promote active living among the people of Kaduna state, Nigeria.
  S.A. Onasanya , R.A. Shehu , N.S. Iwokwagh and A.K. Soetan
  In this study, the significant difference in the post-test performance scores of students in 3-dimensional animation (3-D) production using manual animation technique for control group and computer animation for the experimental group were investigated. The researcher examined the quality of students’ animation productions based on the design variables (spatial, dynamics, design, transition and sound attributes) with extrinsic variables (instructional approaches and animation production tasks). The sample consisted of forty undergraduate students drawn from a Nigerian University. A researcher designed 3-Dimensional Animation Production Skill Test (APST), was administered to the students as a pre-test. The experimental group (consisting of 20 students) was taught using computer animation techniques, while the control group (consisting of 20 students) was taught using manual animation techniques. After the treatment, the APST was re-administered as a post-test. Three research questions stated were analysed using the t-test at 0.05 significance level. Findings from the research questions indicated that students who were exposed to computer animation instruction performed better than their counterparts exposed to manual animation instruction. Based on the findings, recommendations were made on the need to improve the quality of instructional material preparations in educational technology setting.
  R.A. Shehu , S.A. Onasanya , T.A. Oloyede and M. Kinta
  The study was designed to evaluate contributions of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to the prevalence of obesity and elevated blood pressure among students in Ogbomoso Girls' High School, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. Sample population of 120 female's students aged 11-22 years were randomly selected from the school for the study. Skin fold measures at triceps, thigh and supra-iliac of the subjects were taken at the right side of the body. Percentage Body Fat (PBF) of the subjects was calculated from the values derived from body density (P.B.F. 570/DB-4.142)x100. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the subjects on their eaten pattern and activity level. Results showed that, the subjects had high percentage body fat, high percentage body mass index and high systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Results also indicated insignificant relationship between eaten pattern and percentage body fat, while there were indication of significant relationship between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and activity level of the subjects. Increased physical exercises were a strategy postulated for preventing and managing obesity and elevated blood pressure.
  R.A. Shehu , S.A. Onasanya , H.A. Uthman and D.A. Baba
  The study examined the health implications and educational media strategies of widowhood practices in Niger state, Nigeria. The focus of the study was to find out if there is correlation between the widowhood practices in Niger state and their health implications. Three research hypotheses were formulated for the study. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study. The study population comprised of widows, widowers and everyone concerned with caring and management of widows. Three hundred widows were randomly selected among women in Niger state. Data for the study were collected through the use of self developed questionnaire that have been scrutinized and validated by some experts in the area of study. Test-retest reliability techniques was used to determine the reliability status of the instrument. A reliability result of 0.82 r was obtained, which showed that the instrument was reliable. Data collected were analysed with the use of frequency counts and pearson product moment correlation coefficient to show the direction of findings of the study. The result of the study shows that there were significant relationship between emotional, physical and social health of the widows and widowhood practices in Niger state. Based on the findings, the researchers recommend that state public and private health agencies and religion organizations in Niger state should mount a serious educational media campaign against inhuman treatment meted out to the widows. It was also recommended that women should be empowered and made to be self reliant to know their right during widowhood period.
  O.O. Oyerinde , R.A. Shehu , S.A. Onasanya and M. Kinta
  The study reviewed the AIDS problem among Nigerians and ascertained the possibilities of a community based health care as a rehabilitating approach for AIDS patients among the peoples of Nigerian. Data was gathered via the administration of a questionnaire which was previously validated and pilot tested for reliability. Four hundred and fifty subjects were used. They were selected using the systematic Random Sampling Method. These comprised of 150 subjects from each of the major tribes in the country i.e., Yorubas, Ibos and Hausas. Results show that even though, the community based health care was the consensus of the people, isolation and rejection from the community and disciplinary measures were also endorsed.
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