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Articles by R. Wong
Total Records ( 2 ) for R. Wong
  J. Chan , W. So , G. Ko , P. Tong , X. Yang , R. Ma , A. Kong , R. Wong , F. Le Coguiec , B. Tamesis , T. Wolthers , G. Lyubomirsky and P. Chow
  Aims  The Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation (JADE) Program is the first web-based program incorporating a comprehensive risk engine, care protocols, clinical decision and self-management support to improve ambulatory diabetes care. The aim was to validate the risk stratification system of the JADE Program using a large prospective cohort.

Methods  The JADE interactive risk engine stratifies patients into different risk levels using results from an annual comprehensive assessment of complications and risk factors. We used a prospective registry consisting of 7534 Type 2 diabetic patients [45.6% men, median (range) age 57 years (13-92)] to perform internal validation of the risk engine.

Results  The JADE Risk Engine categorized patients into four risk levels (from low to high): level 1, n = 4520 (6%); level 2, n = 1468 (19.5%); level 3, n = 4476 (59.4%); and level 4, n = 1138 (15.1%). After a median follow-up period of 5.5 years (mean ± sd 5.4 ± 2.81 years), 763 (10.1%) died, 1129 (14.9%) developed cardiovascular disease (CVD), 282 (3.7%) developed end-stage renal disease and 1400 (18.6%) had at least one of these events. Compared with risk level 1, levels 2, 3 and 4 were associated with 2.8-, 4.7- and 8.6-fold increased risk of clinical end-points. Risk levels 3 and 4 were, respectively, associated with 2.2- and 3.9-fold increased risk for all-cause death and 4.8- and 12.1-fold increased CVD risks.

Conclusion  Based on results from a comprehensive assessment, the JADE Risk Engine successfully categorizes patients into different risk levels to guide clinical management.

  J. K MacLaine , A. B. M Rabie and R. Wong

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orthodontic treatment on systemic levels of the inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumour necrosis factor- (TNF-), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The study group comprised 11 girls and 6 boys (mean age 13.1 years) treated with fixed appliances and distalizing headgear. Venous blood samples were taken from the cubital vein of each subject before treatment (T0) and then at three further time points during treatment (T1–T3), 2 months apart. The sera from these blood samples were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay technology for CRP, TNF-, and IL-6 concentration levels. Data were compared between baseline and subsequent sequential time points using a Mann–Whitney test for non-normally distributed variables.

The results showed that there was no significant elevation of any of the three inflammatory markers at any of the time points. This research provides evidence that conventional orthodontic treatment is not associated with a systemic immune response in the factors investigated.

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