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Articles by R. W. Holl
Total Records ( 4 ) for R. W. Holl
  B. I. Jakisch , V. M. Wagner , B. Heidtmann , R. Lepler , P-M. Holterhus , T. M. Kapellen , C. Vogel , J. Rosenbauer and R. W. Holl
  Aims  To conduct a multicentre, matched-pair cohort analysis comparing glycaemic control and adverse events of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) with multiple daily injections (MDI) in paediatric patients.

Methods  Using standardized computer-based prospective documentation, HbA1c, insulin dose, body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS), rate of hypoglycaemia, rate of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and intensity of care were analysed in 434 matched pairs during a follow-up period of 3 years after initiation of MDI or CSII.

Results  HbA1c was significantly lower in the CSII group during the first year of new regimen (CSII 7.5 ± 0.05 vs. MDI 7.7 ± 0.06; P < 0.05), but rose to the same level as in the MDI group during year 3. Insulin requirement remained significantly lower in the CSII group. The BMI-SDS increased in both study groups, with no significant difference. The rate of severe hypoglycaemia decreased significantly after the change of regimen (CSII 17.87 ± 2.85 vs. MDI 25.14 ± 3.79; P < 0.05) and during year 3 of the regimen, particularly when compared with baseline (−21% vs. −16%). The rate of DKA was lower at baseline in the CSII group and remained significantly lower over all 3 years. Intensity of care was the same in both subsets.

Conclusions  Employing a large cohort, this matched-pair analysis has demonstrated over a 3-year study period that CSII is a safe form of intensive insulin therapy with similar glycaemic effects, but with significantly reduced rates of hypoglycaemia and DKA and a lower insulin requirement when compared with MDI.

  A. Dost , S. Hofer , A. Herbst , R. Stachow , E. Schober , U. A. Muller and R. W. Holl
  Not available
  C. C. Bachle , R. W. Holl , K. Strabburger , E. Molz , N. Chernyak , P. Beyer , U. Schimmel , H. Rutschle , J. Seidel , R. Lepler , M. Holder , J. Rosenbauer and A. Icks
  Aims  To estimate direct costs of paediatric Type 1 diabetes care and associated factors in Germany for the year 2007 and to compare results with the costs for the year 2000.

Methods  Our study includes clinical data and charges for any diabetes-related health care service of 14 185 continually treated subjects with paediatric diabetes aged < 20 years [52.5% male, mean age (SD) 12.1 (4.2) years], derived from a nationwide prospective patient documentation system (DPV). Health-care utilization was valued in monetary terms by using inpatient and outpatient medical fees and retail prices (perspective of the statutory health insurance). Associations between average total diabetes-related costs or various single cost categories per patient and age, sex, migration background, diabetes duration, and metabolic control were analysed by multiple regression procedures and by a two-part model for hospitalization costs. Total direct costs in the whole paediatric diabetes population in Germany were estimated. Mean costs per patient as well as total costs in the German paediatric diabetes population in 2007 were compared to 2000 costs (inflated to the year 2007).

Results  Mean direct diabetes-associated costs per subject were €3524 (inter-quartile range: 1831-4743). Main cost categories were hospitalization (32%), glucose self-monitoring (29%), insulin pump therapy (18%), and insulin (15%). Based on the present estimation, the total costs of paediatric diabetes care in Germany exceeded €110 million in 2007. Compared with estimates of the year 2000, average costs per patient had increased by 20% and total costs for German paediatric diabetes care by 47%.

Conclusions  Direct costs for paediatric Type 1 diabetes care increased between 2000 and 2007, probably partly because of new therapeutic strategies and an increase in diabetes prevalence.

  G. Hermann , A. Herbst , M. Schutt , H.-P. Kempe , D. Krakow , M. Muller-Korbsch and R. W. Holl


To provide representative data from routine diabetes care concerning the physical activity levels of people with Type 2 diabetes, and to show the association of activity level with cardio-metabolic risk profile in a gender-specific analysis.


The anonymized data from 65 666 subjects with Type 2 diabetes, who have been receiving treatment in specialized diabetes institutions, were analysed using a large multi-centre database. The population was categorized as physically inactive (PA0), active 1-2 times per week (PA1), active >2 times per week (PA2), and then stratified by age (20-59 and 60-80 years). BMI, glycaemic control (measured by HbA1c levels), blood pressure, lipid profile and therapeutic regimen were adjusted for age, gender and diabetes duration.


Most subjects were inactive (PA0: 90%; PA1: 6%, PA2: 4%). BMI, HbA1c and lipid profiles were better in older subjects and hypertension rates were lower in younger subjects. In both age groups, BMI, HbA1c (both < 0.0001) and triglycerides (< 0.002) were lower in the most active group PA2 compared with the inactive group PA0. HDL was higher in elderly (< 0.0001) and pulse pressure (= 0.03) lower in younger most active subjects only. Insulin therapy was used more frequently by the physically inactive and by older people.


This survey indicates that glycaemic control and cardio-metabolic risk profiles in people with Type 2 diabetes are positively related to physical activity. The effects of physical activity were beneficial in younger as well as in older people. The high number of inactive people with diabetes underlines the need to promote physical activity and sport.

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