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Articles by R. Valizadeh
Total Records ( 11 ) for R. Valizadeh
  M. Behgar , R. Valizadeh , M. Mirzaee , A.A. Naserian and M.R. Nasiri
  Physical and chemical properties of 11 feeds including 3 forages; Alfalfa Hay (AH), Corn Silage (CS), Barley Silage (BS) and 8 Non-Forage Fiber Sources (NFFS); Soy Hull with Low (LSH) and High Seed (HSH), Cotton Seed Hull (CSH), Pistachio Hull (PH), Ground Peanut Hull (GPH), Sunflower Hull (SFH), Wheat Bran (WB) and Sugar Beet Pulp (SBP) were investigated. NFFS had a high bulk density (BD, 0.578-0.243; g mL-1) and ADL content and low water holding capacity (WHC, g/insoluble DM). Soluble DM (SDM) and soluble OM (SOM, g L-1) was low for SFH (0.7 and 0.62) and high for pH (6.25 and 4.19). Among all feed WHC had highest correlation with ADF and ash, while for NFFS, correlation was noted between WHC with BD and BC. Among all feeds BD had highest correlation with the NDF and NFC. For NFFS, BD had the highest correlation with ADF and SOM. Among all feeds BC had significant correlation with ash and Sash and pH had significant correlation with soluble fractions. In NFFS, significant correlation was noted between BC with ash, cell wall constituents, soluble fractions and pH. When NFFS were used for providing best predictive models, the r2-values were increased for most of presented models compare with all feeds. The best models were that predicted SOM and BC in NFFS (r2 = 0.995). Based on the results it appears that the type of feeds is critical factor influencing the relationship between physical and chemical parameters.
  M. Kazemi , A.M. Tahmasbi , R. Valizadeh , A.A. Naserian and M.M. Moheghi
  In vitro gas production and in situ techniques were used to evaluate nutritional value of some alternative weed forages e.g., Sorghum halepense, Salsola kali, Convolvulus arvensis and Portulaca oleracea. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h of incubation also, in situ disappear of dry matter for these weed forage was measured at 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation and gas production constants (b and c) were described using the equation y = b (1-e-ct). The most cumulative gas production was for Sorghum halepense in time of 120 h incubation (116.67 mL/300 mg of sample incubated) and Portulaca oleracea was the lowest cumulative gas production for 120 h incubation (66.35 mL/300 mg of sample incubated). The NDF, OM, Pr and DM were different among weed forages used in this study. The equation of y = a+b (1-e-ct) was applied for degradability of DM. The constant (readily soluble fraction, 53.53%) of Convolvulus arvensis was higher but, the constant of Salsola kali was lowest (45.82%). The b constant (insoluble fraction but degradable in rumen) for Sorghum halepense (44.48%) was significantly higher than other treatments and the c constant (rate of degradation of b per hour) was significantly higher for Portulaca oleracea (0.089%). According to results from gas production and in situ techniques, it seems that the Sorghum halepense has a higher nutritive value than other treatments, but more experiments were required for accurate determination of nutritional values of these forages.
  M.A. Norouzian , R. Valizadeh , A. Nabipour , A.A. Naserian and A.M. Tahmasbi
  The effect of rearing system on rumen development and non-carcass characteristics of Balouchi lambs were studied. Twenty-four male lambs were used in a completely randomized design. Eight lambs remained with their mothers throughout the experiment (NR) and 16 lambs divided 2 groups, ARWF, starter without alfalfa and ARF, starter containing 15% alfalfa and were housed individually. Glucose and BUN were not different significantly (p>0.05) between groups. BHBA concentration was higher in artificial rearing whereas, NEFA was higher in natural rearing lambs. Neither DNA content and nor cell size were affected by rearing methods but RNA content and ribosomal Capacity (Cs) were affected by rearing system (p<0.05). ARWF lambs showed thickest keratinized layer than NR lambs and NR, thickest than the ARF but other rumen morphological characteristics were not affect by group. Differences between naturally and artificially reared lambs in EBW and non-carcass organs weight except stomach weight (EBW%) and stomach and omasum capacity were not significant (p>0.05). The results of this study showed that natural rearing lambs have minimum development of rumen.
  R. Valizadeh , A.A. Naserian and P. Vahmani
  Chemical composition and degradability of Pistachio By-products (PB) were studied in 3 experiments. In the first experiment, PB were ensiled with urea (0 and 0.15%) and molasses (0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5%). Total phenols and tannins content of PB silages were reduced significantly (p<0.05) following Urea application. Their reduction rates were 60 and 80%, respectively. DM content of the treated PB silage with 4.5% molasses increased and significant (p<0.05) reduction was observed in phenols and tannin contents. In the second experiment, ruminal degradability coefficients were determined. The treatments were; dried PB (T1), PB silage without urea and molasses (T2) and PB silage with 0.15% molasses (T3). The "a" fraction of DM in T2 (0.379) was lower than T1 and T3. The "c" coefficient for DM in T1 (0.025) was higher than T2 and T3. The "b" coefficient of CP, in T3 (0.339) were lower than T1 and T2. The "c" coefficient of CP in T2 (0.020) was higher than T1 and T3. In the third experiment, rumen and intestinal disappearances of DM and CP were studied. Ruminal disappearance and total digestibility of DM, in T2 (46.28 and 54.70%) were lower than those for T1 and T3. Ruminal disappearance of CP differed significantly between the treatments. The intestinal disappearance of CP in T1 (18.5%) was significantly higher than that for T3 (13.6%). The results showed the dried PB had higher degradability and digestibility in comparison with the ensiled PB. More in vivo practical researches are required at farm levels.
  R. Valizadeh and S. Sobhanirad
  The objectives of this study were to assess the yield and characteristics of by-products from different agro-industries in Khorasan Razavi Province. In a survey the potential by-products generated by the provincial agro-industrial sector was evaluated. The total amount of by-products generated by 127 factories was 102,918 tons year-1 (DM (%) basis). More than 80% of the agro-industries were established in the provincial capital city of Mashhad and the others (20%) located on 19 cities. About 61% of the by-products were available all year round, the rest in summer and fall seasons. The major by-products were tomato pomace, grape pomace, slaughter house by-products, apple pomace and pistachio by-products. Generally, CP content of the most by-products was high mainly of those products from animal origin sector. The CP content of dried fruit and vegetable by-products ranged between 8 and 22%, of human food industry by-products between 9-25% and of animal origin by-products between 17-69%. Degradability values indicated feeding value of the studied by-products from both human food industries and animal origins were high in comparison with those of fruit and vegetable processing section. Almost all agro-industrial by-products had high moisture content and were prone to spoilage and their transportation, storage and handling were difficult and costly. However, it was concluded that most of by-products were more suitable for ruminant animals. More accurate researches and data on nutritional characteristics, appropriate processing methodology, practical and the cost-effective methods on inclusion these by-products into the diets for animals are required.
  R. Valizadeh , M.A. Norouzian , M. Salemi , E. Ghiasi and M. Yari
  A study was carried out to investigate the possibility of feeding high level of Pistachio By-products (PB) to Balouchi lambs. Twenty-eight male lambs, with initial weight of 18.3±1.9 kg were allocated to 4 dietary treatments in a completely randomized designed for a period of 3 months. Four diets containing 0, 10, 20 and 30% PB were fed to the lambs in TMR ad-labium form. The average final live weight of lambs that allocated to diets contained 0, 10, 20 and 30% of PB were 40.0, 41.0, 38.7 and 40.0 kg at the end of the experiment, respectively. Mean daily weight gain was also 224.5, 259.4, 221.0 and 215.6 g day-1, respectively. The respective average feed intake was 1182.8, 1215.7, 1181.1 and 1161.5 g day-1. Feed conversion ratio was 6.73, 6.22, 7.56 and 7.11 for the above diets. Diet containing high levels of PB did not affected the daily weight gain, live weight and feed conversion ratio of the lambs (p>0.05). Such trend was found for some other parameters such as slaughter and dissection data of the experimental animals. There were no significant effect of treatments on all hematology parameters (p>0.05). It can be concluded that PB could be fed up to 30% to the fattening lambs without any adverse effects on performance and health parameters.
  S.E. Ghiasi , R. Valizadeh , R. Rajabian , R. Jalal and B. Azimian
  The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chromium-methionin supplementation in high dosage on blood parameters and Insulin Resistance (IR) index in fructose induced insulin resistant rats. At first stage of the experiment, ten wistar rats were assigned as the healthy control group and sixteen rats were given Fructose (Fr) for 5 weeks in order to inducing insulin resistance. In the 2nd stage the insulin resistant rats were divided into Cr-fed group that additionally fed 1000 μg day-1 chromium as Chromium-L-Mmethionin (Cr-Met) and insulin resistant rats with no chromium supplementation for 6 weeks. In the first stage, IR was significantly induced (p<0.05) in rats receiving Fr. Plasma Fasting glucose, insulin, IR index and triglyceride contents were significantly (p<0.05) increased in Fr-fed group in comparison with the control. According to the results of second stage, IR index significantly (p<0.05) decreased after Cr-Met supplementation. The fasting insulin, glucose and triglycerides concentrations in Cr-Met treated group were lower (p<0.05) than the Fr-fed insulin resistant group. The results of this study indicated that chromium supplementation as Cr-Met could be effective for lowering IR index, fasting insulin, glucose and triglyceride in insulin resistant rats.
  E. Ibrahimi Khorram Abadi , A.M. Tahmasbi , M. Danesh Mesgaran and R. Valizadeh
  An experiment was carried out to evaluate protein degradability on animal performance, ruminal and blood metabolites and ruminal ecosystem. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a change over design in four period. Supplemental protein which provided via Soybean Mal (SBM), Meat Meal (MM), urea were added to basal diet based on the providing same CP protein. Treatments were provided via Soybean Mal (SBM), Meat Meal (MM), urea and with flowing rumen degradability (T1: 74.5, T2: 70.4, T3: 68.7 and T4: 63.7%). Each experimental period was conducted for 21 days (14 days for adaptation and 7 days for sampling). There were no significant difference between treatments for DMI. However, trend indicates that by reduction of RDP in diet milk production decreases. No difference were observed for milk composition, body weight, pH and blood metabolites. Ruminal ammonia nitrogen was numerically higher for does fed T1 (9.25 vs 7.81, 6.94 and 7.98) and this trend was observed for blood urea nitrogen as well. Protozoa number was higher in does fed SBM with Urea.
  T.S. Vafa , A.A. Naserian , A.R. Heravi Moussavi , R. Valizadeh and M. Danesh Mesgaran
  This experiment was designated to examine the effects of different levels of fish oil and canola oil on in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibility of two forages including alfalfa hay and corn silage. Using a completely randomized design with 3x3 factorial arrangement of treatments, the effects of three levels (2, 4 and 6% of DM) of three oil sources (Fish Oil (FO), Canola Oil (CO) and combination of Fish Oil and Canola Oil (FOCO) in 50:50 ratios) in an in vitro batch fermentation on Dry Matter (IVDMD) and Organic Matter (IVOMD) digestibility of alfalfa hay and corn silage were studied. In this experiment, in contrast with control, all oil sources decreased IVDMD (71.4, 69.1, 66.2 and 70 for control, FO, CO and FOCO, respectively) and IVOMD (69.98, 66.4, 63.2 and 68.4 for control, FO, CO and FOCO, respectively) of alfalfa hay significantly (p<0.01). For corn silage, IVDMD (64.3, 63.5, 59.1 and 63% for control, FO, CO and FOCO, respectively) and IVOMD (65.4, 61.9, 58.4 and 62.5% for control, FO, CO and FOCO, respectively) decreased significantly, when oil was added. Among oil sources, canola oil significantly (p<0.05) decreases IVDMD and IVOMD of both forages in comparison with two other oil sources. Increasing oil levels significantly (p<0.05) decreased IVDMD and IVOMD of both forages but alfalfa hay was more susceptible to increasing oil levels than corn silage.
  T.S. Vafa , A.A. Naserian , A.R. Heravi Moussavi , R. Valizadeh and M. Danesh Mesgaran
  Two experiments were designated to examine the effects of different levels of fish oil and canola oil on in vitro and in vivo nutrient digestibility. Experiment 1 was performed to assess the effects of unsaturated oils (fish oil, canola oil, their combination) in three levels (2, 4 and 6% on DM basis) on In vitro Dry Matter (IVDMD) and Organic Matter (IVOMD) digestibility of alfalfa hay and corn silage. For both forages, oil supplementation decreased IVDMD and IVOMD significantly (p<0.01) and increasing oil levels significantly (p<0.05) decreased IVDMD and IVOMD of both forages but alfalfa hay was more susceptible to increasing oil levels than corn silage. In experiment 2, eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (42±12 DIM, 40±6 kg daily milk yield) were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either 0% oil (Control), 2% Fish Oil (FO), 1% Canola Oil + 1% Fish Oil (COFO) or 2% canola oil according to a double 4x4 Latin square design to examine the effects of unsaturated oil on milk yield, DMI and nutrient digestibility. Each period lasted 3 weeks experimental analyses were restricted to the last week of each period. Diets consist of 20% alfalfa, 20% corn silage and 60% concentrate. Cows were housed in tie stalls and fed the TMR two times a day to allow 5-10% orts (as-fed basis). Experimental diets had no significant (p>0.05) effect on milk production but DMI decreased significantly (p<0.05) in FO diet. Digestibility of OM and NDF were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in FO diet in comparison with three other diets, ADF digestibility was decreased significantly (p<0.05) in all oil containing diet in comparison with control but fat digestibility was not affected by treatments (p>0.05). Results of the current experiments shows that combination of fish oil and canola oil in 2% of dry matter had less negative effects on nutrient digestibility of forages and total mixture rations.
  B. Sadighian , A.A. Naserian , R. Valizadeh and A.M. Tahmasbi
  The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ammoniated of sugar Beet Pulp (BP) by different levels of ammonia and water on in vitro gas production parameters. The samples were left treated with water (90 and 120% of BP) and ammonia 1-3% of BP. The gas production data were fitted using an exponential equation of P = b(1-e-ct) where b is the volume of gas produced, c is the fractional rate constant of gas production (/h), t is the incubation time (h) and P is the volume of gas produced at time t. The most cumulative gas production was for w90a1 in time 98 h incubation (68.5404 mL/200 mg of sample incubated). The chemical composition and parameters of OMD, ME SCFA and NEL were different among ammoniated sugar beet pulp used in this study.
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