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Articles by R. Sarbatly
Total Records ( 5 ) for R. Sarbatly
  R. Sarbatly , C.P. Yee , T.S. Fong and D. Krishnaiah
  The objective of this study is to purify red soil from Indah Permai (IP) for industrial applications. Particle size distribution of IP soil was studied and impurities of clay was removed. A series of methods for the extraction of iron oxides from soil and clay was tested with using dithionite (Na2S2O4) as reducing agent at varied pH. Theoretically, the oxidation potential of dithionite increases with increase in pH. A buffer was used in method 1 to maintain the pH at the optimum level (alkalinity). NaHCO3 is served as the buffer. HCl was used in method 2 to provide its acidic environment. However, method 3 reacts in neither acidic nor base environment. Results showed that different methods have different removal efficiency.
  D. Krishnaiah , R. Sarbatly , S. Ram Mohan Rao and R. Rajesh Nithyanandam
  A detailed study was conducted using lab scale spray dryer to produce micro particles using κ-carrageenan (1 wt.%) as the encapsulation or binding agent by different ratio, Mcore/Mwall (1:1, 1:2, 1:4 and 1:6) at different temperature (90, 100, 120 and 140°C). The concentrated noni extract and spray dried noni micro particles were analyzed for encapsulation yield, DPPH scavenging activity, total phenolic content and particle size analysis. From the results it was clear that percentage of DPPH scavenging activity and total phenolic content was slightly higher for 1:6 at 90°C than 1:2 at 90°C. However, 1:2 at 90°C was concluded as optimal operating conditions. By particle size analyzer it was found that at optimal operating spray drying condition, the mean diameter of the particle was varied from 2.53 to 2.27 μm, which is found to be less when compared to all the other ratios at different temperatures.
  D. Krishnaiah , R. Sarbatly , A.M.M. Hafiz , A.B. Hafeza and S.R.M. Rao
  The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of spray drying conditions on the chemical and biological properties of Morinda citrifolia L. powder. The process was carried out on a lab scale spray dryer using carrageenan as a coating agent. The effect of inlet temperature and Mcore/Mwall on Encapsulation Yield (EY), particles morphology and antioxidant potential were investigated. The evaluation of antioxidant potential was assessed using DPPH radical, total phenolic and flavonoid content. The highest quality of powder in terms of antioxidant capacity was produced at optimum drying temperature of 130°C using Mcore/Mwall of 1/4 and at constant temperature of 150°C, the highest Mcore/Mwall ratio was 1/2. The encapsulation yield was higher at higher temperature (150°C) and using Mcore/Mwall of 1/4. Particle size analyzer and scanning electron microscope were used to monitor the structure and size of the powders. The results indicated that all the powders obtained were smooth spheres with size range of 1-20 μm.
  D. Krishnaiah , R. Sarbatly and R. Nithyanandam
  Hot water extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit was spray dried using κ-carrageenan (1 wt%). Spray drying was carried out according to D-optimal design and independent variables selected were temperature and Mcore/Mwall. Spray drying process was optimized by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for four different responses such as moisture content, DPPH scavenging activity, Total Phenolic Content (TPC) and Total Flavonoid (TF). Effects of temperature and ratio of core to wall material found to be significant on all responses. Applying desirability function method, optimal spray drying condition for κ-carrageenan as binding material were found to be 1:1.5 (Mcore/Mwall) at 90°C. Experimental value of response variables match well with the predicted values. The nanoparticles obtained in this study represent an interesting food additive for incorporation into functional foods due to presence of antioxidants.
  D. Krisnaiah , W.M. Keong , M.H. Abdullah and R. Sarbatly
  The development of new technologies on separation methods and applications on pervaporation has been discovered during the past decades. Based on the similar techniques, a new concept Reverse Pervaporation (RP) of gas separation into liquid has been used. The experiment was carried out by simple diffusion of free atmospheric oxygen to pure water through a prepared eggshell column which acts as natural ceramic membrane. The parameters used in this investigation are water flow rate and external pressure. Analysis on diffusion rate and influence of water flow rate and external pressure on flux performance was carried out.
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