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Articles by R. Klein
Total Records ( 3 ) for R. Klein
  B. E. K Klein , M. D Knudtson , M. Y Tsai and R. Klein

Objective  To determine the relation of glycemia, blood pressure, and serum total cholesterol level as systemic markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction to the prevalence and incidence of diabetic retinal outcomes in persons with long-duration type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Methods  Longitudinal population-based study of persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus who received care for their diabetes in south central Wisconsin from July 1, 1979, to June 30, 1980. Data for this investigation were obtained from the 1990-1992 through the 2005-2007 follow-up examinations. Main outcome measures included the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and macular edema (ME).

Results  In the 1990-1992 prevalence data, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule, tumor necrosis factor, and homocysteine levels were associated with increased odds of more severe DR (odds ratios [highest vs lowest quartile], 3.95 [95% confidence interval, 1.66-9.39], 5.46 [2.38-12.52], and 7.46 [2.91-19.16], respectively) in those with kidney disease while controlling for relevant confounders. Similar odds were found for proliferative DR. Only total homocysteine level was associated with increased odds of ME (3.80 [95% confidence interval, 1.91-7.54]), irrespective of kidney disease. None of the markers were associated with incidence of proliferative DR, ME, or progression of DR 15 years later.

Conclusions  A limited number of markers are associated with increased odds of prevalent retinal outcomes in persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus and kidney disease. Only homocysteine level is associated with ME in those with and without kidney disease. In the absence of kidney disease, the markers do not add to the more conventional descriptors and predictors of DR in persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus. This may reflect the close association of DR and kidney disease in diabetic persons.

  A. K. Sjolie , R. Klein , M. Porta , T. Orchard , J. Fuller , H. H. Parving , R. Bilous , S. Aldington and N. Chaturvedi
  Objective: To study the association between baseline retinal microaneurysm score and progression and regression of diabetic retinopathy, and response to treatment with candesartan in people with diabetes. Methods: This was a multicenter randomized clinical trial. The progression analysis included 893 patients with Type 1 diabetes and 526 patients with Type 2 diabetes with retinal microaneurysms only at baseline. For regression, 438 with Type 1 and 216 with Type 2 diabetes qualified. Microaneurysms were scored from yearly retinal photographs according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) protocol. Retinopathy progression and regression was defined as two or more step change on the ETDRS scale from baseline. Patients were normoalbuminuric, and normotensive with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes or treated hypertensive with Type 2 diabetes. They were randomized to treatment with candesartan 32 mg daily or placebo and followed for 4.6 years. Results: A higher microaneurysm score at baseline predicted an increased risk of retinopathy progression (HR per microaneurysm score 1.08, P < 0.0001 in Type 1 diabetes; HR 1.07, P = 0.0174 in Type 2 diabetes) and reduced the likelihood of regression (HR 0.79, P < 0.0001 in Type 1 diabetes; HR 0.85, P = 0.0009 in Type 2 diabetes), all adjusted for baseline variables and treatment. Candesartan reduced the risk of microaneurysm score progression. Conclusions: Microaneurysm counts are important prognostic indicators for worsening of retinopathy, thus microaneurysms are not benign. Treatment with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors is effective in the early stages and may improve mild diabetic retinopathy. Microaneurysm scores may be useful surrogate endpoints in clinical trials.
  E. J. Mayer-Davis , C. Davis , J. Saadine , R. B. D`Agostino Jr , D. Dabelea , L. Dolan , S. Garg , J. M. Lawrence , C. Pihoker , B. L. Rodriguez , B. E. Klein and R. Klein
  Aims  The aim of this pilot study was to generate an initial estimate of the prevalence and correlates of diabetic retinopathy in a racially and ethnically diverse sample of youth with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods  A pilot study was conducted among 222 individuals with Type 1 diabetes (79% non-Hispanic white, 21% other) and 43 with Type 2 diabetes (28% non-Hispanic white, 72% other), all of > 5 years duration (mean duration 6.8 years) who participated in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Diabetic retinopathy was assessed using non-mydriatic retinal photography of both eyes.

Results  The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 17% for Type 1 diabetes and 42% for Type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 1.50, 95% CI 0.58-3.88; P = 0.40 adjusted for age, duration, gender, race/ethnicity, parental education and HbA1c. HbA1c was significantly higher among those with any diabetic retinopathy (adjusted mean 79 mmol/mol, 9.4%) vs. no diabetic retinopathy (adjusted mean 70 mmol/mol, 8.6%) (P = 0.015). LDL cholesterol was also significantly higher among those with any diabetic retinopathy (adjusted mean 107.2 mg/dl) compared with those without diabetic retinopathy (adjusted mean 97.9 mg/dl) (P = 0.04).

Conclusions  The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in contemporary young individuals was substantial, particularly among minority youth and those with Type 2 diabetes. Further long-term study of diabetic retinopathy in youth is needed.

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