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Articles by R. S Blumenthal
Total Records ( 3 ) for R. S Blumenthal
  S. A Weiss , R. S Blumenthal , A. R Sharrett , R. F Redberg and S. Mora

Background— Individuals with exaggerated exercise blood pressure (BP) tend to develop future hypertension. It is controversial whether they have higher risk of death from cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods and Results— A total of 6578 asymptomatic Lipid Research Clinics Prevalence Study participants (45% women; mean age, 46 years; 74% with untreated baseline BP <140/90 mm Hg [nonhypertensive]) performing submaximal Bruce treadmill tests were followed for 20 years (385 CVD deaths occurred). Systolic and diastolic BP at rest, Bruce stage 2, and maximal BP during exercise were significantly associated with CVD death. When we compared multivariate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals per 10/5-mm Hg BP increments, the association was strongest for rest BP (systolic, 1.21 [1.14 to 1.27]; diastolic, 1.20 [1.14 to 1.26]), then Bruce stage 2 BP (systolic, 1.09 [1.04 to 1.14]; diastolic, 1.09 [1.05 to 1.13]), then maximal exercise BP (systolic, 1.06 [1.01 to 1.10]; diastolic, 1.04 [1.01 to 1.08]). Overall, exercise BP was not significant after adjustment for rest BP. However, hypertension status modified the risk associated with exercise BP (Pinteraction=0.03). Among nonhypertensives, whether they had normal BP (<120/80 mm Hg) or prehypertension, Bruce stage 2 BP >180/90 versus ≤180/90 mm Hg carried increased risk independent of rest BP and risk factors (adjusted hazard ratio for systolic, 1.96 [1.40 to 2.74], P<0.001; diastolic, 1.48 [1.06 to 2.06], P=0.02) and added predictive value (net reclassification improvement, systolic, 12.0% [–0.1% to 24.2%]; diastolic, 9.9% [–0.3% to 20.0%]; relative integrated discrimination improvement, 14.3% and 12.0%, respectively).

Conclusions— In asymptomatic individuals, elevated exercise BP carried higher risk of CVD death but became nonsignificant after accounting for rest BP. However, Bruce stage 2 BP >180/90 mm Hg identified nonhypertensive individuals at higher risk of CVD death.

  M. T Scheuner , C. M Setodji , J. S Pankow , R. S Blumenthal and E. Keeler

Background— The General Cardiovascular Risk Profile is a multivariable model that predicts global cardiovascular disease risk. Our goal was to assess the ability of the General Cardiovascular Risk Profile to identify individuals with advanced coronary artery calcification (CAC) and determine whether identification is improved with family history.

Methods and Results— Using data from the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, 3 sex-specific models were developed with ordinal logistic regressions to relate risk factors to CAC scores. Model 1 included covariates in the General Cardiovascular Risk Profile. Then family history was added, defined as having at least 1 first-degree relative with premature coronary heart disease (model 2) or as a weak, moderate, or strong family history based on number of relatives with coronary heart disease, age at onset, and the presence of stroke or diabetes in the family (model 3). For each model, we estimated mathematical CAC risk functions, derived CAC score sheets, evaluated the ability to discriminate persons having positive CAC scores, and assessed reclassification of individuals with low, intermediate, or high probability of CAC >300. Model 1 worked well to identify women and men with positive CAC scores; c-statistics were 0.752 and 0.718 and 2 values were 821.2 (P<0.0001) and 730.6 (P<0.0001), respectively. Addition of family history improved discrimination and fit of model 1. However, reclassification of participants with advanced CAC was significantly improved with model 3 only.

Conclusions— The General Cardiovascular Risk Profile identifies advanced CAC, an emerging indication for aggressive risk factor modification. Incorporation of family history, especially comprehensive familial risk stratification, provides incremental prognostic value.

  K Nasir , R. L McClelland , R. S Blumenthal , D. C Goff , U Hoffmann , B. M Psaty , P Greenland , R. A Kronmal and M. J. Budoff

Background— Whether measuring and reporting of coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) might lead to changes in cardiovascular risk management is not established. In this observational study, we examined whether high baseline CACS were associated with the initiation as well continuation of new lipid-lowering medication (LLM), blood pressure–lowering medication (BPLM), and regular aspirin (ASA) use in a multi-ethnic population-based cohort.

Methods and Results— The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is a prospective cohort study of 6814 participants free of clinical cardiovascular disease at entry who underwent CAC testing at baseline examination (examination 1). Information on LLM, BPLM, and regular ASA usage was also obtained at baseline and at exams 2 and 3 (average of 1.6 and 3.2 years after baseline, respectively). In this study, we examined (1) initiation of these medications at examination 2 among participants not taking these medications at baseline; and (2) continuation of medication use to examination 3 among participants already on medication at baseline. Among MESA participants, initiation of LLM, BPLM, and ASA was greater in those with higher CACS. After taking into account age, sex, race, MESA site, LDL cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, smoking status, hypertension, systolic blood pressure, and socioeconomic status (income, education, and health insurance), the risk ratios for medication initiation comparing those with CACS >400 versus CACS=0 were 1.53 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08, 2.15) for LLM, 1.55 (95% CI, 1.10 to 2.17) for BPLM, and 1.32 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.69) for ASA initiation, respectively. The risk ratios for medication continuation among those with CAC >400 versus CACS=0 were 1.10 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.20) for LLM, 1.05 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.08) for BPLM, and 1.14 (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.25) for ASA initiation, respectively.

Conclusions— CACS >400 was associated with a higher likelihood of initiation and continuation of LLM, BPLM, and ASA. The association was weaker for continuation than for initiation of these preventive therapies.

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