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Articles by R. Blundell
Total Records ( 7 ) for R. Blundell
  R. Blundell
  Not Available
  R. Blundell
  Not available
  J. Xuereb and R. Blundell
  During the past decades, cancer research has expanded rapidly due to the relatively high incidence rate of cancer and high death rate linked to it. The type and the extent of aggressiveness of particular cancers are determined by specific flaws in the cell cycle regulation. This study gives a detailed depiction of the cell cycle’s phases including the checkpoints being the G1 (GAP 1) phase, the G1/S (Synthesis) DNA damage checkpoint, the S phase, the G2 (GAP2) phase, the G2/M (Mitosis) DNA replication checkpoint, the M phase and the interphase. Regulation occurs at all the previous phases mainly through the formation of cyclins-CDKs (Cyclin Dependent Kinases) complexes. The latter control precisely the commencement and completion of the specific events leading to cell duplication and division by activating various genes such as the Rb (Retinoblastoma) gene. CDKs’ activity is in turn regulated by various factors such as phosphorylation, controlled degradation of cyclins, regulated synthesis of both CDKs and cyclins by growth factors and cytokines, as well as by CKIs (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors) such as p15, p16, p18, p19, p21, p27 and p57. The balance between tumour suppressor genes such as p53 and Bax and antiapoptopic genes such as Bcl2 and IGF-BP3 has also been demonstrated with a particular focus on p53-"the guardian of the genome".
  G. Camilleri and R. Blundell
  The fact that some viruses act as carcinogens has long since been known. Amongst these viruses are some genotypes of the Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs). HPV is most frequently associated with cervical cancer, that is, cancer of the cervix or neck of the uterus. In fact, 95-100% of all cervical cancers are caused by infection with HPV. HPV also causes a high proportion of other anogenital cancers. In 1995, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) concluded that HPV types 16 and 18 are carcinogenic to humans; HPV types 31 and 33 are probably carcinogenic to humans whilst some HPV types other than 16, 18, 31 and 33 are possibly carcinogenic to humans. This review focuses first on the structure, classification and genome of these particular viruses. Particular attention is given to those features that play a role in the carcinogenicity of particular HPV genotypes. Given the close association between HPV and cervical cancer, detecting the presence of HPV in a particular patient and more specifically, the presence of particular genotypes of HPV, may give an indication of the likelihood of progression to precancerous and cancerous changes in the cervix. In fact, there is much evidence that screening of women with both cytology and HPV DNA tests increases sensitivity for detection of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) 3 or cancer sufficiently to permit longer screening intervals than with cytology alone. However, it is important to realize that the presence of HPV does not mean that a woman has or will develop cervical disease. Thus, there is still a dilemma as regards the real utility of HPV DNA testing. Screening and diagnostic procedures for cervical cancer will be discussed in the second part of this review, with special emphasis on HPV DNA testing. The benefits of HPV DNA testing in specific situations will be highlighted, particularly in the case of a diagnosis of Atypical Squamous Cell of Undetermined Significance (ASCUS).
  R. Blundell
  Not Available
  J. Xuereb and R. Blundell
  Chronic leukaemia manifests itself into two different types being Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL) and Chronic Myelogenous Leukaemia (AML) depending on the type of leukocyte being affected. CLL is the most common type of leukaemia in adults in contrast to CML which is the rarest type of leukaemia. This study shows the epidemiology and the etiology, such as chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations which include upregulation of Bcl2, mutation of p53, 13q deletion, 11q22-23 deletion, 12q trisomy and 17p deletion for CLL and the fusion of the BCR and ABL genes in CML. It also includes the clinical presentations consisting of both signs and symptoms as well as how these types of leukaemia are diagnosed and their pathophysiology which comprises a detailed description of the alterations in various cellular mechanisms. The treatment involving both chemotherapy and stem cell therapy, amongst others, has also been discussed.
  G. Camilleri and R. Blundell
  Until a few years ago cervical cancer was one of the commonest type of cancer in women worldwide. Its incidence decreased dramatically following the implementation of the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear as a screening procedure. The Pap smear can detect a wide range of abnormalities of the cervix from benign cellular changes to precancerous conditions. Part of this review, will focus on this issue, specifically the abnormal and/or possibly precancerous findings that can be found in a Pap smear result. These will be classified according to the Bethesda system. One must emphasize here that most of these abnormalities regress on their own and do not need specific treatment. Yet, findings like the High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (HSIL) have a high rate of progression to cancer and necessitate immediate management. The other half of this review will focus on cervical cancer in itself, a malignant and therefore invasive disease which, like all other cancers, can be fatal if left untreated. The extent of spread of the cancer is determined by the staging system, here described according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO). Staging is an important means of evaluating the treatment plans used.
 
 
 
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