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Articles by Pear Mohammad
Total Records ( 10 ) for Pear Mohammad
  Pear Mohammad and Masaya Shiraishi
  The formation rate, elongation and periclinal growths, and the morphology of roots in trifoliate orange budded with satsuma mandarin under culture solution pH 4.5-5.6, 6.0-6.3 and 7.5-7.6 were studied to know the favorable range of culture media acidity for this plant. Root formation was earlier and maximum and the elongation growth was highest at pH 4.5-5.6 followed by pH 6.0-6.3 and 7.5-7.6. The periclinal growth also increased in terms of stelar and overall diameters along with elongation under pH 4.5-5.6 but periclinal development became slower or remained constant at pH 6.0-6.3 and 7.5-7.6. Normal sloughing of older rootcap cells leaving sharply pointed root tips and the presence of distinctly visible intact epidermal cells were observed under pH 4.5-5.6 at all exposures. While at pH 6.0-6.3, moderately severe removal of rootcap cells was evident at short exposure followed by root tip injuries and root surface ridging on prolonged induction. The severe removal of rootcap cells under pH 7.5-7.6 became apparent in a short period and root tip injuries occurred subsequently on prolonged exposure. Epidermal peel off and root surface ridging were prominent due to the destruction of epidermal cells and gradual root death with the increase of exposure time. This study suggests that the favorable range of growing media pH for trifoliate orange budded with satsuma mandarin lies between 4.5-5.6.
  Pear Mohammad and Masaya Shiraishi
  Anatomical responses of roots in trifoliate orange budded with satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Okitsu Wase) to aerated and stagnant culture solutions were investigated. Roots, under aerated condition, had sharply pointed tips and showed intact anatomical features having a few starch grains on the rootcap and cortical cells. The cortical cells were smaller close to the root tip and gradually became elongated towards the base. All these characteristics maintained the same level even up to 10 days of observations. On the contrary, under stagnant condition, secretion of mucilaginous substances and root tip injuries were found on the 3rd day of induction which became more conspicuous on the 5th. These injuries resulted the severe sloughing of cells and starch grain degradation in the rootcap. Eight day induced roots displayed more distinct root tip injuries and discharging of mucilaginous substances. On the 10th day, air spacing between the cortical cells were conspicuous. Epidermal injuries were also evidenced sporadically on the 5th day and became more severe subsequently. Degradation of starch grains gradually completed in the cortical cells along the exposure time. The enlargement of periblemic cells were noticed which gradually resulted larger cells close to the root apex on longer exposures.
  Pear Mohammad and Masaya Shiraishi
  The effects of foliar application of marine algae extract (RIC-1) on the growth and development of roots and shoots in satsuma mandarin were studied under plastic house conditions. The 500 times diluted sprays of this extract enhanced the formation of fibrous roots and at higher concentration (300 times diluted), root rotting occurred. While at lower concentration (1000 times diluted), the roots became comparatively thicker. The formation of new branches and their lengths were higher in all treated trees with maximum value at 500 times diluted spray compared to those of control. The number of leaves and their size in terms of length and width were significantly,higher in the treated trees having the maximum output under 500 times diluted treatment. Light microscopic observation revealed the accumulation of numerous starch grains in the mesophyll cells of leaves in the treated trees. The starch grain number/cell increased along the increased concentration of RIC-1 sprays from 1000 times diluted to 300 times diluted. The width of mesophyll cell layer also similarly increased in RIC-1 treated leaves, This study suggested 500 times diluted RIC-1 spray as optimum for the growth and development of roots, branches and leaves of satsuma mandarin trees under plastic house conditions.
  Pear Mohammad and Masaya Shiraishi
  The morphological deformations of root hairs in trifoliate orange grafted with satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Okitsu Wase) under high summer temperature (40-45°C) and limited soil moisture (pF 2.7-2.9) conditions were observed under scanning electron microscope. The hair zone positioned apart from the root tip before treatments which gradually proceeded nearer the root tip under only high temperature stress. However, the speed of this effect was so slow that even after 25 days of exposure the hair zone was not found to be completely proximal to the root tip. The elongation of hairs was noticed within 5 days which gradually deformed and after 25 days of exposure almost all the hairs were degraded. In contrast, at high temperature accompanied low soil moisture condition, hair zone appeared extremely nearer the root tip within 5 days followed by the random occurrence of hairs from root tip up to a certain distance towards the base. Although slightly elongation of hairs was found at the initial stage, severe degradation ensued at the following sampling dates. As the consequences, after 25 days of treatment the complete destruction of hairs occurred where only the traces of abolished hairs were left. In general, only the high temperature stress primarily resulted the formation of dense hairs but this dense hair formation was instantly inhibited as the interactive effects of high temperature and low soil moisture stress.
  Abdul Razaq , Masaya Shiraishi , Pear Mohammad , Ryoko Tsutsumi and Junko Toda
  The changes in egg of citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor) Mari: Tetranychidae) during hatching were observed under scanning electron microscope. The egg was jewel-shaped having a diameter of 120-145 pm. The guy ropes and stalk broken down after two weeks of laying eggs. The characteristics of the shell surface gradually changed before hatching. The vertically patterned ridges appeared from the stalk base toward the middle portion of the egg. With the passage of time, the egg surface converted into deep patchy form. The embryo developed and the larva made a pair of hales in the middle region of egg using claws. The inside surface of the shell was smooth. The internal surface was spongy and external surface was patchy type having a thickness of 1 pm. The cleavage appeared on the equatorial portion of the egg and the larva came out. The deposited eggs had sticky wax materials on its ventral side for attachment on the leaf.
  Socorro E. Aguja , Pear Mohammad and Masaya Shiraishi
  The development of chloroplasts in the mesophyll cells of control and urea-applied satsuma mandarin leaves were studied. At 20 days after budding (DAB) active differentiation of chloroplasts in urea-applied trees was evident. However, on a length times width basis, chloroplasts were small in both palisade (1.99 × 0.70 μm2) and spongy (2.78 × 1.50 μm2) layers that contained few small (0.53 - 0.72 × 0.39 - 0.57 μm2) starch grains. The thylakoid layers per chloroplast were lesser (2.80) in this treatment compared to control (3.72). At 40 DAB, both control and urea-applied trees reached chloroplast maturity, but control trees had bigger chloroplast (4.87 × 2.39 μm2) in the palisade layer cells which contained extremely large and numerous starch grains with few dilated thylakoid layers. Degenerating chloroplasts in the spongy layer cells of control trees were characterized by the disappearance of the outer membrane. While urea-applied trees had smaller chloroplast (4.56 × 2.39 μm2) in the palisade layer. Further, few small starch grains, thylakoid-filled stroma and many lipid droplets were found. Moreover, thylakoid layers were about to dilate but outer membrane of the chloroplasts remained intact in both palisade and spongy layer cells. Compared to the palisade layer cells, chloroplasts in the spongy were bigger (5.32 x 1.95 μm2).
  Pear Mohammad and Masaya Shiraishi
  The formation rate, elongation and periclinal growths and morphology of roots in trifoliate orange budded with satsuma mandarin, (Citrus unshiu Marc, cv. Okitsu Wase) were studied under aerated and stagnant culture solutions. Rooting started simultaneously within a few days of placement of trees to the culture solutions in both conditions, but total roots/tree was higher in aerated solution compared to stagnant one. Incessant elongation growth was found under aerated conditions while growth was slower in the preliminary stage followed by complete cessation after 5 days of induction to the stagnant solution. The aerated solution also attributed gradual root thickening with higher values of stelar and overall diameters and their ratios as well as elongation growth occurred but stagnant conditions inhibited this thickening. Roots at aerated solution had sharply pointed tips in the preliminary stage which remained unchanged even after longer exposure and the epidermal cells were also constantly intact. On the other hand, under stagnant condition, 3-day-induced roots possessed sharply pointed tips which became dome-shaped on the 5th day and variously injured on the 8th and 10th days. Epidermal cells after 8 and 10 days under this condition also became severely injured. This study therefore suggests that satsuma mandarin onto trifoliate orange can endure stagnant condition only 2-3 days but this condition exerts adverse effects on longer exposures.
  Pear Mohammad and Masaya Shiraishi
  The anatomy of young roots of trifoliate orange budded with satsuma mandarin cultured hydroponically under pH 4.5-5.6, 6.0-6.3 and 7.5-7.6 were investigated to know the pH optima for this plant. Under pH 4.5-5.6, root tips were pointed and meristematic zone appeared wider. Starch grains were found on the rootcap and cortical cells apart from the tip but were absent completely from the cortical cell files close to the root apex. These characteristics remained similar along the exposure time. Under pH 6.0-6.3, roots were subjected to gradual shortening of growing zone followed by epidermal and root tip injuries on longer induction. Starch grain content in the cortical cells gradually increased up to 10 days of induction followed by conspicuous decrease, especially near the injured epidermis. The adverse effects of pH 7.5-7.6 started at short exposure resulting the severe sloughing of rootcap cells and bulbous structure of root tip. The epidermal injury also became conspicuous even within 3 days. The root apex secreted mucilaginous substances which were followed by injuries. Numerous starch grains were initially accumulated in the cortical cells but degraded completely at longer exposures. The cortical cells remained elongated and cell length gradually increased from the root apex towards the root base at pH 4.5-5.6. In contrast, the cells turned to round and their lengths became higher near the root apex in pH 6.0-6.3 and 7.5-7.6 compared to pH 4.5-5.6.
  Pear Mohammad and Masaya Shiraishi
  The root hairs of trifoliate orange grafted with satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Okitsu Wase) at low soil moisture (-0.046 to -0.059 MPa) and high summer temperature (40-45°C) condition was studied under scanning electron microscope. The hair zone in actively growing roots positioned far apart from the root terminal and the hairs were mostly smaller with domft-shaped tips. Along with the severity of modification in roots under the present treatment hair zone positioned gradually nearer the root tip and the hairs gradually degraded. As a result the moderately modified roots possessed a few intact hairs but the extremely modified ones had only a few degenerated hairs or they were completely devoid of that. In that case, only the traces of abolished hairs were left with the root epidermis. At the initial stage of modification in roots, hairs elongated and this elongation was also found in the moderately modified roots but they had slightly irregular shapes. As the modification of root hairs progressed, their tips variously malformed having bending or swollen structure or they were severely injured. The malformed or injured root hairs subsequently destroyed completely.
  Abdul Razaq , Pear Mohammad , Masaya Shiraishi , Ryoko Tsutsumi and Junko Toda
  The pattern of weaving by guy ropes in association with egg stalk was observed under scanning electron microscope in Panonychus citri (McGregor). The egg stalk was vertical having a base of 15.5 μm wide and its length was 146 μm. Initially few guy ropes extended from the tip of the stalk to the leaf surface of host plant. The ropes rolled up to 125 μm on the stalk tip and were stretched towards the surface. Several thin ropes combined together to form strong strand. The ropes were roughly surfaced and possessed granular materials. The development of new net was accomplished with further extension of thinner ropes, which were twisted over the thicker ones and pasted on the leaf. Mites used adhesive material for the fixation of threads on the leaf as well as for webbing. The thick guy ropes were segregated before sticking on the leaf surface. The surface of the leaf was covered with adhesive, which was invisible. Several ropes overlaps the hatching egg vertically and horizontally.
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