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Articles by Patimah Ismail
Total Records ( 11 ) for Patimah Ismail
  Mohd Azmi Ambak , Abol-Munafi Ambok Bolong , Patimah Ismail and Bui MinhTam
  The objectives of this research were focused on the genetic relationships among four populations of Channa striata distributed in Peninsular Malaysia. A set of OPA primer with 10-mer was used to assay polymorphisms among populations. Different RAPD fragment pattern were observed for different locations. A total of 8 primers produced 42 polymorphic bands among all populations. Using this technique, only slight differences in genetic diversity were detected among locations of Channa striata within Peninsular Malaysia although the diversity of all locations analyzed together differed from the reference populations. Differences in genetic distance between populations may be due to selection pressure of pollutants on fish. These results are discussed in relation to implications of RAPD assays in the evaluation of genetic diversity.
  Ambok Bolong Abol-Munafi , Mohd Azmi Ambak , Patimah Ismail and Bui MinhTam
  Snakeheads are freshwater fish which are distributed wildly in Asia and Africa. In Malaysia, Channa genus were identified in six species named Channa lucius, C. striata, C. micropeltes, C. gachua, C. marulioides and C. melasoma. In previous studies, Channa species were mainly classified based on morphology. Phylogenetic relationships from 36 individuals of 6 Channa species distributing in Malaysia were analyzed over the sequence of cytochrome b gene. Primers named forward L14841 and reverse H15149 amplified the gene. The results indicated that the species belonged to two major clades. The first clades was only C. lucius. The second clade comprised of species named C. striata, C. micropeltes, C. gachua, C. marulioides and C. melasoma.
  Mohd Nazil Salleh , Chew Yee Choy , Patimah Ismail , Norashikin Shamsudin and Paul Carmichael
  In the present study, effects of tamoxifen, an antiestrogen, on the inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in neu/c-erbB-2 receptor, DNA synthesis and proliferation were evaluated using the malignant glioma cell lines U25 IMG and T98G which overexpressing neu/c-erbB-2. Pre-treatment of two cell lines with tamoxifen resulted in a dose dependent inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation as well as DNA synthesis and cell growth in two cell lines correlatively. The results support the hypothesis that activated protein tyrosine kinase receptors are involved in the proliferation of glioma cells. Tamoxifen may be useful in the treatment of malignant glioma.
  Asmah Rahmat , Susi Edrini , Abdah Md. Akim , Patimah Ismail , Taufiq Yap Yun Hin and Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar
  The antiproliferative activities of Strobilanthes crispus was evaluated using (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide) (MTT) assay against several cancer cell lines and Chang liver (normal) cell lines. The methanolic extracts of Strobilanthes crispus displayed the strongest cytotoxic effect on colon cancer (Caco-2) followed by human breast cancer hormone non-dependent (MDA-MB-231) and liver cancer (HepG-2) with IC50 values of 22.3, 27.2 and 29.3 μg mL-1, respectively. The chloroform extract of this plant was shown to also have cytotoxic effect against Caco-2 and HepG-2 with IC50 values of 25.1 and 28.0 μg mL-1, respectively. β-sitosterol and stigmasterol were isolated from the leaves of Strobilanthes crispus. β-sitosterol displayed cytotoxic properties against Caco-2, HepG-2 and MCF-7 with IC50 values of 20.0, 53.0 and 71.2 μM, respectively. Whereas, stigmasterol inhibited the proliferation of Caco2, HepG2, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values of 132.5, 182.5, 156.0 and 185.9 μM, respectively. There was no cytotoxic effect observed on normal cell lines (Chang liver) in all samples tested.
  Adel S. Al-Zubairi , Patimah Ismail , Chong Pei Pei , Ahmad B. Abdul , Reyadh Saif Ali , Siddig I. Abdel Wahab and Asmah Rahmat
  The leaves of khat (Catha edulis) are reported to have stimulating and pleasurable effects and are chewed habitually by people of East Africa and Arabian Peninsula. Due to various effects of khat the present study was undertaken to evaluate the short-term repeated dose effects of freeze dried khat leaves crude extract administration to male Sprague-Dawley rats. In this study, the effects of catha edulis leaves extract oral administration on plasma concentration of Malonyldialdehyde (MDA), triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, uric acid, albumin and testosterone and liver enzymes activities were examined. Four groups of rats were exposed to 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg kg 1 body weight/day for 6 consecutive weeks. Our results demonstrated that food consumption and body weights changes were non-significantly different relative to the control. There were no significant effects observed on the levels of plasma MDA, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, uric acid, albumin, liver enzymes or Acid Phosphatase (ACP) in the treatment groups relative to the control. Administration of freeze dried crude catha edulis leaves extract for 6 weeks was found to increase plasma testosterone levels in the two high doses treatment groups (1000 and 2000 mg kg 1 body weight) in more than 2 folds, while it was non-significantly increased in the 500 mg kg 1 body weight treatment group, as compared to control. The data indicated that at the doses and time period tested, catha edulis freeze dried crude extract could be considered as aphrodisiac. Moreover, it did not produce any significant effect on the normal biological markers of liver toxicity or prostatic adverse effects.
  Asmah Rahmat , Susi Edrini , Patimah Ismail , Taufiq Yap Yun Hin and Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar
  The aimed of this study is to extract the essential oil from Strobilanthes crispus (Acanthaceae) and Lawsonia inermis Linn (Lythraceae) and to investigate the chemical constituents, antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity effects of these oils on several cancer cell lines and normal cell lines. From GC-MS analysis revealed that the presence of at least 28 components for Strobilanthes crispus and 23 components in Lawsonia inermis. The total antioxidant activity from (FTC) and (TBA) methods showed that the essential oils of both plants have higher antioxidant activity compared to α-tocopherol. The essential oil from Lawsonia inermis displayed the strongest cytotoxic effect on liver cancer cell lines (HepG2) with IC50 (concentration that inhibit 50% of cell proliferation) value of 24 μg mL-1. However, the essential oil from Strobilanthes crispus did not give any cytotoxic value against all the cell lines tested. No cytotoxic effects of both oils in normal cell lines. The essential oils from both plants can be used as nutraceutical supplement to increase antioxidant needed in body to enhance defence systems, especially towards the incidence of degenerative diseases. The essential oil from Lawsonia inermis can be used as supplement in cancer patients especially in liver cancer patients.
  Susi Endrini , Asmah Rahmat , Patimah Ismail and Taufiq-Yap Yun Hin
  The research was conducted to examines the anticarcinogenic properties of henna (Lawsonia inermis) extract (using chloroform as a solvent) by the microculture tetrazolium salt (MTT) assay on the human breast (dependent-hormone, MCF-7; non-dependent hormone, MDA-MB-231), colon (Caco-2), liver (HepG2) carcinoma cell lines and normal human liver cell lines (Chang Liver). The preliminary results showed that the henna extract displayed the cytotoxic effects against HepG2 and MCF-7 with IC50-value of 0.3 and 24.85 μg ml-1, respectively. However, no IC50 values were obtained from Caco-2 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines at the concentration studied. This extract also did not show the IC50 value against normal human liver cell lines, Chang Liver, indicated the selectivity of its cytotoxic properties. The antioxidative activities of this extract which could contribute to its cytotoxic properties were also studied. Antioxidant activity in henna was found to be the highest as compared to vitamin E or α -tocopherol. The strong cytotoxic properties of this extract could be due to its high antioxidant activities.
  Mohd. Nazil Salleh , Patimah Ismail , Yun Hin Taufiq-Yap and Paul Carmichael
  To identify putative genetic targets for p53 in vivo, in this research applied the cDNA macroarray gene expression profiles associated with apoptosis by comparing p53+/- knockout mice and wild-type mice on the uterus of female mice. p53+/- knockout mice and wild-type mice were treatedwith DES (500 μmole kg-1) or vehicle i.p once daily for 4 days. Total RNAs were obtained from uterus of control and DES-treated. The signal intensities of individual gene spots on the membrane were quantified and normalised to the expression level of the GAPDH gene as an internal control. Present results demonstrated that sixteen genes; bad, bax, bcl-2, bcl-w, bcl-x, caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-8, c-myc, E124, GADD45, mdm2, NKκb1, p53, p21, Rb and trail were up-regulated and six genes; caspase-1, caspase-2, DR5, E2F1, FasL and iNOS did not changed in response to DES treatment in wild-type mice compared to p53+/- knockout mice. Most genes are involved in cell cycle regulation, signal transduction, apoptosis, or transcription. The greatest changes were seen in bad, bcl-x, mdm2, p53 and p21 gene expression in wild-type mice compared to p53+/- knockout mice. In comparing p53 and p21 gene expression in wild-type mice and p53+/- knockout mice, there was a 2.1-fold versus 8.3-fold; 16-fold versus 5.5-fold an increment in induction, respectively. RT-PCR was used to confirm the biggest changes of p21, p53 and bax genes. Using this approach, present study identified apoptosis associated genes regulated in response to DES and have revealed putative differences between the isogenic parent strain and p53+/- knockout mice, which will contribute to a better understanding of toxicity/carcinogenicity mechanisms in this model.
  Suherman Jaksa , Asmah Rahmat , Fauziah Othman , Patimah Ismail and Siti Muskinah Hj. Mansor
  The administration effect of Strobilanthes crispus extract (SC) during hepatocarcinogenesis was studied to investigate the possible cancer suppressive effect of the component existed in the leaves. The rats (84 male Sprague Dawley) were divided into 14 groups N (Normal), C (Cancer), NS 1 (Normal+ SC 1%), NS 2.5 (Normal+SC 2.5%), NS 5 (Normal+SC 5%), NS 7.5 (Normal+SC 7.5%), CS 1 (Cancer+SC 1%), CS 2.5 (Cancer+SC 2.5%), CS 5 (Cancer+SC 5%), CS 7.5 (Cancer+SC 7.5%), CG 1 (Cancer+Glycyrrhizin 1%), CG 2.5 (Cancer+Glycyrrhizin 2.5%), CG 5 (Cancer+Glycyrrhizin 5%), and CG 7.5 (Cancer+Glycyrrhizin 7.5%). 1, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% (w/v) of S. crispus extract were used, compared with Glycyrrhizin, the commercial anticancer drug used mainly for liver. Administration effect during liver cancer in rats that have been induced with cancer by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and 2-acetyl-aminoflourence (AAF) was studied by estimation of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and uranyl diphosphate glucoronyl transferase (UDPGT) in liver. The severity of neoplasia in induced liver cancer was also evaluated by histological examination. Treatment with DEN/AAF caused increase in all enzyme activities measured when compared to control. Significant differences were observed among all the treatment groups for GST and UDPGT activities. Histological evaluations showed the loss of normal morphology and organizations of hepatocytes when carcinogens were introduced into the rats. The severity of liver cell dysplasia was evidently decreased by SC extract treatment group as compared to glycyrrhizin. Furthermore SC did not affect the normal organization in the liver. The findings suggest that supplementation of SC on DEN/AAF rats reduced the severity of hepatocarcinogenesis.
  Susi Endrini , Asmah Rahmat , Patimah Ismail and Y.H. Taufiq-Yap
  This research was conducted to study and compare the cytotoxic effect of the extracts of two plants, henna (Lawsonia inermis) and kejibeling (Strobilanthes crispus) on several kinds of cancer cell lines. The mechanism of the effect was also studied through the expression of cancer-caused gene, c-myc. This research was done in vitro using several kinds of cancer cell lines such as human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2), liver cancer cell lines (HepG2), hormone-dependent breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) and hormone-independent breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231) and Chang Liver cell lines. The cytotoxic effect was measured through MTT assay and the potential cytotoxic value was calculated by determining the toxic concentration which may kill up to 50% of the total cell used (IC50). Meanwhile, the cytotoxic mechanism was studied by determining the effect of adding both extracts to the c-myc gene expression. The methods for determination were RT-PCR and sequencing process. The results showed that chloroform extract from henna can be used against human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2) and liver cancer cell lines (HepG2) with an IC50-value of 25.1 and 28 μg mL–1, respectively. Kejibeling was also found to be cytotoxic against human liver cancer cell lines (HepG2) and hormone-dependent breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) with an IC50-value of 0.3 and 24.8 μg mL–1, respectively. However, the extract was not cytotoxic against human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2). The smallest value of IC50 was seen when the kejibeling extract was compared with henna. The cytotoxic effect of both plant extracts may be mediated by the down-regulation of c-myc expression.
  R. Vasudevan , Patimah Ismail , Johnson Stanslas and Norashikin Shamsudin
  The presence of a dimorphic BglI site in the first intron of the Renin (REN) gene is an increased risk in essential hypertension. Several studies have found the association between BglI dimorphism and essential hypertension with conflicting results in various populations, which might be due to ethnic and geographical variations. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between the BglI dimorphism of REN gene and Essential Hypertension (EHT) with or without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in Malaysian subjects. The study includes 70 EHT, 60 EHT with T2DM and 70 unrelated healthy subjects from the three ethnic groups of Malaysian Subjects. The genotype of BglI dimorphism was done by PCR-RFLP method using BglI restriction enzyme. The frequency of the BglI (+) allele was 37.86% in EHT, 40.83% in EHT with T2DM subjects and 35.71% in control subjects. The results of this study indicate that the BglI (+) allele of REN gene is not associated with essential hypertension with or without T2DM in Malaysian Subjects.
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