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Articles by P.A. Iji
Total Records ( 8 ) for P.A. Iji
  A.V. Elangovan , M. Bhuiyan , R. Jessop and P.A. Iji
  A study was undertaken to test the nutritional potential of new high-yielding, high protein varieties of triticale developed at University of New England, Australia containing higher protein (around 20%) for their feeding value in broiler chicken. Three hundred and fifty day-old Cobb broiler chicks was randomly allocated to 10 treatments consisting of 5 cereal diets viz., one wheat and four triticale varieties (H55, H128, H431 and H261) incorporated at 40% level in diet and 5 corresponding diets supplemented with microbial enzyme. The weight gain to 22 day of age on the wheat-fed group was higher (p<0.01) than on H128 and H261 but not the groups raised on H55 and H418. The jejunal mucosal protein was lowest (p<0.055) in enzyme-supplemented groups and the activity of alkaline phosphatase was higher (p<0.05) in chickens on H55 and H128 than on the wheat-based or H418 diets. The ileal protein digestibility on the wheat-based diet was higher (p<0.01) than on H128 and H261 with lower starch digestibility in H418. It is most probable that these triticale varieties would have similar feeding values as wheat for broiler chickens, provided the diets are iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. Enzyme supplementation did not influence growth performance probably due to lower soluble non-starch polysaccharide levels.
  M.A. Hossain , A.F. Islam and P.A. Iji
  This study was undertaken to investigate the growth performance and energy utilization of broiler chickens fed on conventional diets, based on soybean or canola, with fishmeal (SBM50 and Can50, respectively) or on Vegetable Protein (VP) diets without fishmeal (SBM75 and Can75). Feed intake was highest (p<0.001) on the SBM50 and Can50 diets and lowest on SBM75 diet. Birds in the SBM50 and Can50 diet groups were heavier (p<0.001) than the SBM75 and Can75 diet groups. Birds on SBM50 and Can50 diets achieved superior Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), while birds on Can75 diet were the poorest. Mortality of birds was unaffected (p>0.05) between dietary groups. The Apparent Metabolizable Energy (AME) intake on the SBM50 and Can50 diets was higher (p<0.001) than in the VP. Fat intake was highest (p<0.001) on Can50 diet group while protein intake was unaffected by treatment. Heat Production (HP) was identical, but net energy of production (NEp) was improved (p<0.05) in the birds on SBM50 and Can50. Whole body energy as well as fat (p<0.05) and protein contents were also increased (p<0.01) in the SBM50 and Can50 dietary groups. Birds on SBM50 and Can50 diet groups retained higher energy as fat (REf) (p<0.05) and as protein (REp) (p<0.01). The efficiencies of utilization of ME for energy (kRE), protein (kREp) and fat (kREf) retentions were unaffected. The results demonstrated that birds on the conventional diets (SBM50; Can 50) utilized energy better and as such grew faster than the birds on VP (SBM75; Can75) diets.
  M.M. Bhuiyan , F. Islam , A.J. Cowieson and P.A. Iji
  The aim of the present study was to evaluate the nutritional quality of traditional sun-dried maize grain, subjected to further heat treatment. The maize grains were obtained from three different locations, namely Moree in NSW, Emerald in QLD and Darling-Downs on the NSW-QLD border, Australia. Once received, one batch (sun-dried) was assessed without further drying. The other two batches from each source were dried artificially using a forced draught-oven at 105°C for 30 min or 24 h. The morphological structures (starch granules) of grains were changed due to heat-treatment for 30 min at 105°C and far-reaching structural changes occurred when samples were heated for 24 h. Proximate analysis of maize revealed that the DM (897.3-967.4 g kg-1), CP (92.1-108.7 g kg-1), EE (49.0-57.5 g kg-1), phytate-P (1.2-2.4 g kg-1) and ash (14.1-19.7 g kg-1) contents of samples varied due to source and heating period. The starch, amylose, available amino acid and mineral contents increased with increasing heating duration. Variable anomeric proton peaks (1H-NMR) were found with an increase in the oven drying period in all maize samples. In vitro digestibility of DM, starch and CP was improved due to heat-treatment at 105°C for 30 min 24 h. It may be concluded that the chemical composition, ultra-structural characteristics and energy values of maize samples varied by source and were changed through heating of low-moisture maize over varying time periods. These changes could impact on the nutritive value of the grains and animal performance.
  M.M. Bhuiyan , F. Islam , A.J. Cowieson and P.A. Iji
  In a 2x2x3 factorial study, the effect of milling technique (hammer vs. roller) with differing particle sizes (fine or coarse) of maize from three sources (Downs, Emerald or Moree) on growth performance, ileal digestibility and intestinal microbial profiles of broiler chickens (from 1-21 days post-hatch) was investigated. A total of 420 day-old male Cobb chicks were randomly allocated to 12 treatments of 5 replicates (seven birds per replicate) in brooder cages set up in an environmentally controlled room. The maize grain was finely ground using a hammer mill or roller mill with a 2 mm screen or coarsely ground through a 4 mm screen. Feed intake up to 7 days of age was higher (p<0.003) on the diet containing finely roller-milled grain than on the coarsely milled grain but no effect found on d21. Live weight was affected by the source of maize (p<0.04). The FCR to d21 was improved (p<0.042) on the Moree maize that was finely roller milled. The relative weight of proventriculus plus gizzard (p<0.01) and liver (p<0.01) were higher in diets containing coarsely milled grain than finely milled grain at 7 but not 21 days. Nutrient digestibility was affected due to maize source (p<0.01) and particle size reduction (p<0.01). These results suggest that fine grinding some sources of maize would be beneficial in terms of improvement in FI, LW and weight of proventriculus and gizzard in early ages as well as nutrient digestibility at a later age.
  N. Chauynarong , M.M. Bhuiyan , U. Kanto and P.A. Iji
  The objective of this study was to evaluate the variation in nutrient composition of cassava pulp from four different sources (starch manufacturers) in Thailand. Moisture content varied with drying process, being lowest in the oven-dried product and highest in the sample that was sun-dried. Gross energy content ranged between 16.2 and 16.84 MJ kg-1 while fat, crude protein starch contents were approximately 0.4-0.9, 2.0-4.0 and 37.0-75.0%, respectively. The sun-dried pulp from Chonburi contained the highest concentration of calcium, sodium, magnesium, iron and manganese. Phosphorus and potassium were 0.32-0.63 and 2.28-8.86 mg kg-1, respectively. The amino acid contents in cassava pulp were low, in line with the protein content (1.39-2.45%). Lysine, methionine and isoleucine were 0.82-1.24, 0.06-0.18 and 0.54 -1.40 mg g-1, respectively. Most of the Non-Starch Polysaccharides (NSP) were in insoluble forms (approximately 40-90 g kg-1) whereas soluble NSP was between 13.93 and 16.21 g kg-1. The main sugars in the insoluble NSP were xylose, galactose and mannose.
  N. Chauynarong , P.A. Iji , S. Isariyodom and L. Mikkelsen
  An experiment was conducted to examine the benefits of supplementing maize-soy diets with a composite microbial enzyme, Allzyme SSF, for laying hens at the pullet stage. Seven hundred and twenty 12-week old Isa Brown pullets were used in the different level of protein content diets. Feed intake from 12 to 16 weeks of age was unaffected by the enzyme supplement, except at the lowest protein content (P<0.05). Feed intake was, however, affected by the enzyme supplement between 16 and 20 weeks (P<0.001) and over the entire trial period (P<0.05). Body weight at 16 weeks of age was reduced (P<0.05) on the control low-protein diet. Feed conversion ratio was not affected by dietary protein content or through supplementation with the microbial enzyme. The relative weight of the ovary was reduced (P<0.01) on the low protein control diet, but the weight of visceral organs associated with digestion was not affected. The pullets in all groups failed to come into lay at 17 weeks of age, mainly due to very severe winter, as the experiment was conducted in a house that was not completely temperature-controlled. Onset of lay occurred from about 23 weeks of age, after the hens were already on a commercial diet but effects of previous dietary treatments on early egg production were noticeable.
  N. Chauynarong and P.A. Iji
  An experiment was conducted to examine the benefits of using cassava pulp in layer breeder diet. Six hundred and eight female and sixty four male Hisex Layer Breeders at 22 weeks of age were distributed into four different diets (a Control, Control+enzyme, Cassava pulp and Cassava pulp+enzyme). Inclusion of 10% cassava pulp and exogenous enzyme (Catazyme-P®) did not significantly affect egg production during the period of assessment (23-37 weeks of age). There were no apparent effects of treatment diet on egg quality, except yolk color score which tended to decrease when cassava pulp was added into the diet. Cassava pulp and enzyme supplementation did not significantly affect fertility and hatchability. However, enzyme supplementation marginally improved the hatchability of fertile eggs. From the results of this experiment, cassava pulp can be included at 10% in diets for breeding layer chickens.
  M.A. Hossain , A.F. Islam and P.A. Iji
  A study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary protein sources and microbial enzyme supplementation on amino acid and mineral digestibility, tissue protein contents and endogenous enzyme activities of broiler chickens. Ross 308 day-old male broiler chicks (n = 160) were assigned randomly to four dietary treatments, each replicated five times, eight chicks per replicate, in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Two basal diets were formulated with soybean (SBM) and canola (CM) meals at a ratio of 75:25, respectively, along with basal grains and fed to the birds as such or supplemented with enzymes from 1 to 35 days. Enzymes had a positive effect on the gross responses (feed intake, body weight and feed conversion ratio) of the broiler chickens at 35 days. However, feed intake was significantly different (p<0.001) between protein sources but this did not affect (p>0.05) body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) between 1 and 35 days. Tissue protein contents and endogenous enzyme activities at 21 days (except for maltase) were unaffected by dietary sources and microbial enzyme supplementation. The activity of maltase was higher (p<0.05) on CM diets than on SBM diets, but this effect was absent when diets were supplemented with enzymes. The digestibility of threonine and lysine, measured at 35 days, was significantly (p<0.01) higher on SBM diets than on CM diets. Similarly the digestibility of valine, isoleucine and leucine was also higher (p<0.05) on SBM diet than in CM diet. Addition of enzymes also significantly (p<0.05) increased the digestibility of histidine, threonine, lysine and isoleucine, but not the digestibility of other amino acids measured at this period (35d). Enzymes had no effect (p>0.05) on mineral digestibility of broilers over the test period. The digestibility of Cu, Zn and Mg was increased (p<0.05) on CM diet, whereas Ca digestibility was higher on SBM diet at 35 days. It can be concluded that the improved growth of the birds might be a result of increased digestibility of amino acids and increase in feed consumption.
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