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Articles by P.A. Onyeyili
Total Records ( 10 ) for P.A. Onyeyili
  F.I. Abdulrahman , P.A. Onyeyili , S. Sanni and V.O. Ogugbuaja
  This study investigated the sub-acute effects of aqueous root bark extract of Vitex doniana on some serum elemental components as well as serum biochemical parameters in rats. Serum sodium levels were significantly (p<0.05) increased following extract treatments while those of potassium were decreased. The extract decreased serum calcium concentration but no marked effect was observed on serum phosphorus concentration. The cholesterol level also decreased in the rats treated with higher concentration of extract (100 and 200 mg kg-1), while the protein concentration in the serum of treated animals was comparable with that of control except at 200 mg kg-1 which showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in protein level at 21 days of extract treatment. Levels of liver marker enzymes and blood urea nitrogen in the extract treated rats increased in a dose-dependent manner and could be due to the pathological lesions in the liver and kidney which are the main excretory system. The aqueous extract of Vitex doniana though used for the management of some illness such as diarrhea, jaundice, anemia, mental illness, rheumatism and as tranquilizer in man, has been observed in rats under the conditions of this study to be toxic to both the liver and kidney.
  E.U. Etuk , P.A. Onyeyili and B.Y. Muhammed
  Pharmacokinetics studies were performed in healthy red Sokoto goats using chloramphenicol 25 mg kg-1. Following the drug administration intravenously and intramuscularly samples of plasma were obtained in the goats at various time intervals. Measurable blood levels of the drug were obtained in goats for 6 h after intravenous injection and for 9 h after intramuscular administration. A mean plasma concentration of chloramphenicol (25.63±2.01 μg mL-1) was obtained at 0.08 h (5 min) after the intravenous administration of the drug while the peak plasma concentration of the drug following intramuscular treatment was 9.64±0.74 μg mL-1 after 0.25 h (30 min). The apparent volume of distribution and the total body clearance of chloramphenicol from the Sokoto red goats were higher after intramuscular than intravenous administration. About 80% of the drug administered intramuscularly reached the plasma. This result has yielded baseline data for further investigation(s) of the drug.
  E.U. Etuk and P.A. Onyeyili
  A comparative pharmacokinetic study of chloramphenicol (25 mg kg-1 intravenous) by Chemical assay in normal and water-deprived Sokoto red goats revealed that the plasma drug concentrations were significantly higher in water-deprived goats. Various pharmacokinetic parameters like Area Under the Curve (AUC), half- life of elimination (t½β) were significantly lower whereas the total body clearance (Cl) and elimination rate constant (β) were significantly higher in water-deprived goats as compared to normal goats. The mean resident time of the drug also increased from six to nine hours after water deprivation. The higher mean plasma concentration of the drug after water deprivation obtained in the study may indicate the need to reduce the dose of this drug in dehydrated patients to avoid dose-dependent toxicity.
  E.U. Etuk and P.A. Onyeyili
  The kinetics and residue of chloramphenicol in the various tissues of the Sokoto red goats has been studied using colorimetric assay method. The results indicate that, Variable concentrations of chloramphenicol were detected 5 min after a single intravenous dose of the drug (25 mg kg 1) in various tissues of the animal. The drug persisted up to 240 h (10 days) in the skeletal muscle of the goats. The kinetics of the drug also show variation among the various tissues considered. These findings are of public health significance.
  E.U. Etuk , A.M. Umarudeen , P.A. Onyeyili and A.T. Elsa
  A comparative plasma kinetics of sulphadimidine (100 mg kg-1, intravenous) studied by chemical assay in non-starved and starved rabbits has shown that; the mean peak plasma concentrations of the drug (101.70±5.74 μg mL-1) was higher in the starved than the non-starved animals (72.45±6.22 μg mL-1). The volume of distribution of the drug (Vdβ) and the total body clearance (CL) were significantly reduced after deprivation of food for 48 h in the animals. Equally, the elimination rate constant (β = 0.078 h-1) was higher in the non-starved than in the starved rabbits (β = 0.052 h-1). The study therefore concludes that, short term starvation has significantly increased the plasma concentrations and altered the kinetic profile of sulphadimidine following intravenous administration in rabbits. Thus, this factor should be considered when administering the drug to avoid dose dependent toxicity.
  E.U. Etuk , P.A. Onyeyili and S.O. Bello
  A comparative pharmacokinetic study of chloramphenicol (25 mg kg-1 intravenous) by chemical assay method and its combination with sulphamethazine (33 mg kg-1) in Sokoto red goats has revealed that the mean peak plasma concentrations at 0.08 h post drug administration were not significantly different. However, various pharmacokinetic parameters were significantly altered (p<0.05) after the combination therapy; the total body clearance (Cl) and elimination constant (β) were significantly higher whereas the half life of elimination (t½ β) and the distribution rate constant were significantly lower. These changes observed in this study could be an indication that, the combination therapy may require a reduced chloramphenicol dose without necessarily minimising the efficiency of the drug and this may also possibly reduce the risk of dose-related toxicity.
  Y. Karumi , P.A. Onyeyili and V.O. Ogugbuaja
  Momordica balsamina leaf was investigated for it`s chemical and traces elemental content. The air-dried samples were subjected to soxlet extraction using the solvents petroleum ether, methanol and water of different polarities. The extract fractions were concentrated and subjected to phytochemical screening to identify which component was high in concentration. The aqueous fraction, which is commonly used by traditional herbal healers, was further, subjected to column chromatographic separation and the recombined fraction of the column was further subjected to thin layer chromatography for identification. The air-dried sample was digested and analyzed for trace elements using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid in high concentration followed by saponins, tannins and reducing compound, respectively. Sterols and triteperes were absent in all the solvents used. The analysis of the recombined column fraction of the aqueous extract indicated the presence of the tannins in two of ten fractions, alkaloids in four, saponins in two and the last fraction indicated the presence of reducing compounds. The thin layer chromatography identified the presence of alkaloids, saponins and tannins in the different fractions of the column. In conclusion therefore, M. balsamina as shown here do posses some active chemical constitutes like alkaloids, tannins, saponins, Fe, Zn and Mn.
  E.U. Etuk , A.M. Umarudeen , P.A. Onyeyili and A.T. Elsa
  The tissue concentrations and kinetics of sulphadimidine (100 mg kg-1; intravenous) has been studied in normal and starved rabbits by chemical assay method. The results indicate that, different concentrations of the drug were obtained in the various tissues (liver, heart, kidney brain and skeletal muscle) examined. The drug persisted in the brain and skeletal muscle of the animals up to 12 days after its administration. The starved rabbits maintained consistently higher concentrations of the drug in its tissues as compared to the fed ones. The half-life of the drug was shortest in the liver (5.63 and 6.11 h) of the non-starved and starved rabbits, respectively. The elimination rate constants were correspondingly higher in the liver (0.210 and 0.230 h), respectively for the non-starved and starved rabbits. The study therefore concludes that, acute starvation can raise the tissue concentrations of sulphadimidine in rabbits and the safe withdrawal time following the administration of the drug should be in excess of twelve days.
  A.T. Elsa and P.A. Onyeyili
  Small intestinal atresia, an inheritable disease has a low incidence of occurrence in animals. In veterinary practice atresia is a commonly encountered congenital problems of the gastrointestinal system of small ruminants. This study therefore reports two clinical cases of small intestinal atresia and its management in Sokoto red goats.
  E.U. Etuk and P.A. Onyeyili
  A comparative pharmacokinetic study of chloramphenicol (25 mg kg-1 intravenous) by colorimetric assay method in tissues/organs of healthy goats and Salmonella typhimurium infected goats has revealed that, the drug was present in high concentrations in various tissues at 0.08 h (5 min) post-drug administration except in the brain of healthy goats and skeletal muscle of both healthy and infected goats. The average concentrations of the drug in the liver, kidney, spleen, bone marrow, lungs, heart and brain were higher after the infection. The residence period of the drug was higher in the kidney and the skeletal muscle of the healthy goats (240 h; 10 days). There were however decrease in the half-lives, elimination rate constants of the drug in the liver, kidney, spleen, brain, heart and skeletal muscle after the infection. The present study indicated that, a single dose of intravenous chloramphenicol injection can persist up to 10 days and a shorter period (5 days) in the edible tissues of the healthy and Salmonella infected goats, respectively. The presence of chloramphenicol in some edible tissues for up to 10 days is of public health significance.
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