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Articles by P.A. Ekunwe
Total Records ( 4 ) for P.A. Ekunwe
  J.O. Oyedeji , O.O. Olasupo , P.A. Ekunwe and O.T. Okugbo
  An experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of a single diet containing 18% crude protein (CP) and 3000kcal/kgME as an alternative feeding regimen to 3 other conventional feeding standards for broiler production. Three hundred and twenty (320) Anak broilers were randomly divided into four treatment groups. The first three groups served as control while the 4th was the tested treatment. Broilers in group 1(G1) representing control 1 were fed diet with 23% CP 0-3 weeks, 20% CP 3-6 weeks and 16% CP 6-8 weeks. While those in group 2 (G2) representing control 2 were fed diet with 23% CP 0-6 weeks and 14% CP 6-8 weeks. Also broilers in group 3 (G3) representing control 3 were fed diet with 20% CP 0-4 weeks and 16% CP 4-8 weeks, while those in group 4 were fed 18% CP 0-8 weeks. All diets contained 3000kcal/kg of metabolizable energy. The birds were kept in battery brooder cage for 8 weeks. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. At the 8th week, 10 birds were randomly selected from each of the four treatment groups and starved for 18 hours. They were killed by cervical dislocation and used to determine the carcass parameters. Performance results at 8 weeks showed that broilers fed on 18% CP and 3000kcal/kg ME had the lowest feed intake (P<0.05). Although the weight gain was significantly reduced, broiler in the group had comparable feed gain ratio with those on two of the control groups(p>0.05) and better feed to gain ratio than the third control group (p<0.05). Mortality was not significantly influenced by any of the dietary treatments (P>0.05). Dietary crude protein CP 18% and 3000kcal/kgME for broilers resulted in better carcass weight, breast meat yield and gizzard weight when compared with the controls (P<0.05). It also reduced abdominal fat content (p<0.05). Economically, feeding broiler on diet of 18% CP and 3000kcal/kg of energy for 0-8 weeks also recorded a significantly reduced cost benefit ratio a factor that determines how best the production cost is utilized (P<0.05). It was then concluded that using dietary CP 18% and 3000kcal/kgME for feeding broilers from 0-8 weeks, could be an alternative to the conventional feeding methods currently used for broilers where they are fed 2 or 3 different diets in a space of 0-8 weeks where they are expected to be marketed. It was also noted that such feeding method would be suitable for poultry farmers who practice on-farm feed production.
  P.A. Ekunwe , O.O. Soniregun and J.O. Oyedeji
  The general objective of this study is to examine the economics of small-scale deep litter system of egg production in Oredo Local Government Area Edo State, Nigeria. The Specific objectives are to determine the profitability in deep litter system of poultry production among small-scale farmers, to examine the socioeconomic characteristics of egg producers and to identify the constraints to egg production in the study area. Primary and secondary data were obtained from farmers. A purposive sampling of small-scale egg producers was carried first in the study area. Then a simple random sampling technique was then employed to select 182 egg producers using a well-structured questionnaire from the entire population of small-scale farmers. Descriptive statistics such as means and percentages were using to examine the socioeconomic characteristics. The gross margin analysis was used to determine the profitability. While the constraints to egg production was analyzed using the likert scale technique. The result of the analysis reveals that the average number of birds raised in deep litter is 760 birds. The study also shows that 68% and 32% of women and men produce eggs at this level respectively. The result of the study reveals that the fixed capital investment per bird was N 624.17 and total fixed cost less depreciation per bird was N.208.88 and total variable cost per bird was N 331.62. The study also reveals that total revenue from the sales of eggs per and other sources were N 3,749.22 per bird with a gross margin per bird of N 3,417.6 and a net profit of N 3,208.72. Finally the major constraints faced by the farmers are in the order of inadequate finance, high cost of feed, low egg price and high cost of medicine and vaccine Investments on Poultry building.
  P.A. Ekunwe and O.O. Soniregun
  This research was aimed at examining the Profitability and Constraints of medium scale Battery Cage system of Poultry farmers involved in egg production in Edo State. Nigeria. A total of 100 questionnaires were administered and the simple random sampling technique was used to select egg producers from Oredo Local Government Area (LGA) of Edo State of which eighty eight questionnaires were found suitable for analysis. Descriptive statistics such as tables, frequency distribution and percentages were used to determine the socio-economic characteristics of the poultry farmers. The gross margin analysis, net returns and return per naira were used to determine the profitability of egg production. The constraints to egg production were analyzed using the likert scale technique. The results of the analysis revealed that the average number of birds raised is 1,930 birds. (This revealed that the system was operated under small-Scale). The study revealed that 44% and 54% of the respondent was females and males respectively. The results of the study also revealed that the fixed capital investment per farm was N 474, 988.65. Also, total fixed cost less depreciation was N 423,545.86. The study also revealed that total revenue and net returns from the sales of egg and other sources per bird per year was N3, 421.86 and N3, 168.70 respectively. Finally the major constraints faced by the farmers are in the order of inadequate finance, high cost of feed, low egg price and high cost of medicine and vaccine.
  C.O. Emokaro and P.A. Ekunwe
  The objective of the study was to determine whether the resources employed in the production process were efficiently utilized. The primary data used in the study were gathered with the help of a well structured questionnaire, administered through the cost-route method of data collection. The simple random sampling technique was adopted after the study area had been stratified into regions where dry season amaranth production is carried out. The underlying analytical techniques employed were multiple regression analysis and descriptive statistics. The result showed that dry season amaranth producers in Edo South are smallholder farmers, predominantly males, with mean farm sizes ranging between 0.046, 0.067 and 0.093 hectare. It was also shown in the study that none of the resources employed in the production process was efficiently utilized. While land and fertilizer were underutilized (with efficiency estimate of 5.57 and 1.78, respectively), labour was shown to be over-utilized (with an efficiency estimate of 0.27). The immediate implication of these findings is that there is enough potential for increased production of amaranth, especially in the dry season when amaranth is known to be scarce. This can be actualized by the cropping of larger hectares, regulated usage of higher quantities of fertilizers and the provision of labour saving machines like water pumps and irrigation devices, which would help reduce labour requirements and enhance efficiency. This would go a long way in addressing the serious nutritional deficiencies in the diets of the average Nigerian.
 
 
 
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