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Articles by P. Srinivasan
Total Records ( 6 ) for P. Srinivasan
  P. Srinivasan , P. Ramasamy , G. P. Brennan and R.E.B. Hanna
  Bacteriophages of Vibrio harveyi from a shrimp farm located at Tuticorin, Tamilnadu, India, were isolated, characterized and identified. The phages, when examined by electron microscopy, were found to have icosahedral morphology. The phages belong to the Siphoviridae family and were designated VH1 to VH8. They produced circular clear plaques of growth inhibition on Vibrio sp., plate cultures. The growth inhibitory effects of the bacteriophages on isolates of V. harveyi were screened by a one-step agar bioassay method and the results suggest that the infectivity of the V. harveyi phages was not affected by ribonuclease, protease, trypsin, chloroform, acetone, ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol and Triton-X100 treatment at 37°C. Even after their storage in chloroform or DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide, 7%) at -40°C. They showed 100% infectivity and plaque-forming ability. In contrast, Infectivity of the V. harveyi phages was affected by lysozyme and SDS and in these cases; plaques were not formed on agar plate assays. The phages were found to be stable over the pH range 6-11 and exhibited optimal survival at 37°C while complete inactivation occurred at temperatures exceeding 55°C. All the isolates of bacteriophage (VH1-VH8) initiated an infection cycle and caused lysis of the host bacterial cells within 2 h from the start of incubation. The propagation curve for each phage shows a burst time started from 1-10 h. The results suggest that bacteriophages of Vibrio sp., might be effectively used in vivo as biological agents to control these pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture systems.
  A. Sudha , K. Sumathi , S. Manikandaselvi , N.M. Prabhu and P. Srinivasan
  The present study was undertaken to evaluate the hepato-protective effect of crude flavonoid fraction of aerial parts of Lippia nodiflora in ethanol induced oxidative stress in liver using experimental animal models. Ethanol-fed (5 g kg-1 day-1) male rats were treated by crude flavonoid fraction (25, 50 mg kg-1) for 21 days. The liver damage was indicated by the significant increase in serum AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, total bilirubin, urea and decrease in total protein and triglyceride (TG). Lipid peroxidation markers like Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), Glutathione Reductase (GR) and Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were also measured. The crude flavonoid fraction showed significant (p<0.05) protective effect by decreasing the elevated liver marker enzymes, total bilirubin, lipid peroxidation marker and ameliorated the diminished serum total protein as well as antioxidant levels in a dose dependent manner. The protective effect of the crude flavonoid fraction was observed at both concentrations and was compared to that of the standard used. Hence, our results highlights the ability of crude flavonoid fraction of Lippia nodiflora to ameliorate oxidative damage in the liver and the observed effects are associated with its antioxidant activities.
  P. Srinivasan , G.A. Balasubramaniam , T.R. Gopalakrishnamurthy and P. Balachandran
  Pathology of oviduct in sub optimally producing commercial layer chicken were investigated in five flocks. Suboptimal production was commonly noticed between 23rd to 45th wk of age. The production drop ranged from 5 to 12 per cent below the expected egg production. The morbidity and mortality rates varied from 5 to 11 and 0.2 to 2 percent, respectively. The antibody HI titres for NDV (128-445.7) IB (45.3-128) and EDS -76 (2 to 4) were within the normal range. ELISA titre for MG and MS was below 269. The heterophil : lymphocyte (H:L) ratio was above the normal level in all the five flocks and it was more elevated in younger (0.97) compared to older (0.63) flocks. Bacteriological and virological examination revealed no organisms of any etiological significance. Grossly, regression, deformation and loss of hierarchy in ovarian follicles were noticed. The left oviduct was, short, narrow and thread like structure in few birds and in the remaining cases partial atrophy with demarcation were noticed. On opening, the mucosal surface of the affected oviduct lost its glistening appearance and the folds were markedly reduced in height and width. Histopathologically, deciliation of surface epithelium, degeneration and involution of the glandular tissues with well developed connective tissue matrix and mild to moderate mononuclear cells infiltration in all the parts of oviduct were noticed. Absence of etiological agents and elevation of H:L ratio suggest that the atrophy of oviduct in sub optimally producing flocks may be due to non specific stress experienced by the commercial layer chickens.
  S. Rajamanikandan , R. Vanajothi , A. Sudha , P. Rameshthangam and P. Srinivasan
  Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) has important roles in embryonic development and tissue repair, especially bone and blood vessels. Many Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) found in FGFR2 gene has been associated with various disorders such as crouzon, jackson-weiss syndromes, breast, ovarian and lung cancers. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the structural and functional impacts of all known SNPs in FGFR2 gene using publicly available computational prediction tools. Out of total 2255 SNPs retrieved from dbSNP, we found 58 non-synonymous SNP, 39 SNPs in the non-coding region which comprises 28 in 3’ UTR and 11 were found in 5’ UTR region. Among these SNPs, 10 non-synonymous SNPs were found to be damaging by both sequence homology based tool (SIFT) and structural homology based tool (PolyPhen). Untranslated region resource tools UTRscan and FastSNP were used to analyze the region which might change protein expression levels. Further, we modeled mutant protein and compared the energy minimization based on the native protein and identified major mutations from Tryptophan to Arginine and Tryptophan to Cysteine at position 290 of the native protein that caused the greatest impact on stability. From our results, we suggest two non-synonmous SNPs rs121918501 and rs121918499 could be a potential candidate for future studies on FGFR2 mutations.
  R. Vanajothi , S. Rajamanikandan , A. Sudha and P. Srinivasan
  KIT is a growth factor receptor, important for normal germ cell migration and development. The malfunction of KIT gene results in constitutive activation of the tyrosine kinase activity of c-KIT which is believed to be the major oncogenic event in stomach, small intestine mastocytosis, acute leukemias, melanomas and colon tumors. The genetics of these diseases could be better understood by knowing the functional relevance of their SNP variation. In this study, a computational analysis to detect the most deleterious non-synonymous SNPs of KIT gene was performed and investigated its binding affinity to native and predicted mutant protein structure (D816V) with sunitinib and HDAC (Trichostatin A and Panobinostat) inhibitors was investigated. Out of 1,288 SNPs retrieved from dbSNP database against KIT gene, 11 non-synonymous SNPs were detected to be damaging and deleterious by SIFT, PolyPhen and I-Mutant2.0 servers. Further, we modeled the mutant protein based on the deleterious nsSNP (rs121913507) and showed that the mutation from Aspartic acid to Valine at 816 position exhibit greatest impact on stability. The RMSD values of mutant and native structures are found to be 0.40 and 1.9 Å, respectively. Furthermore, the binding affinity of sunitinib and HDAC inhibitors were compared with native and mutant protein. In this regard, it was found that trichostatin A has a high binding efficacy towards the mutant protein with a binding energy of -35.274 kcal mol-1, as compared to the native structure which has a binding energy of -25.996 kcal mol-1. Also, the FastSNP tool suggested that 3 SNPs found to affect protein splicing site and splicing regulation. From present results, it was clear that the non-synonymous SNP rs121913507 (D816V) could be the most deleterious SNP for KIT gene and HDAC inhibitors can serve as a best drug for the mutant protein.
  P. Srinivasan , D. Jagadeswaran , R. Manoharan , T. Giri , G.A. Balasubramaniam and P. Balachandran
  Milk samples from 206 apparently healthy buffaloes of marginal farmers maintained under the prevailing field conditions were screened for Subclinical Mastitis (SCM) to determine its prevalence and etiology by White Side Test (WST), California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Count (SCC) and Bacteriological examination. 26.20% of animals were positive for SCM in SCC and bacteriological examination. Prevalence in graded Murrah buffaloes were found to be higher compared to graded Surti and Non-descript breeds. The prevalence of SCM was highest in above 6th stage of lactation. Single quarter infection (51.85%) was more common compared to multiple quarter infection. Hind (83.34%) and left side (57.41%) quarters were more prone to SCM. The indirect tests such as WST and CMT were found to be closely agreement with SCC and bacteriological examination. Due to their efficacious, easy to perform and interpret, these tests can effectively be employed to detect SCM under field conditions. Somatic cell count of = 3,00,000/ mL of milk was regarded as the upper limit for normal buffaloes. The SCC of = 3,00,000/mL of milk with positive bacterial growth were used to diagnose SCM in the present study. Staphylococcus sp. 25(46.30%) was the most common pathogens isolated from SCM followed by Streptococcus sp. 11(20.37%) and E. coli 06 (11.11%) of the 54 bacterial isolates. Monobacterial and mixed bacterial infections were observed in 47 (87.04%) and 7 (12.96%) cases respectively.
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