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Articles by P. Devarajan
Total Records ( 3 ) for P. Devarajan
  C. R Parikh , J. C Lu , S. G Coca and P. Devarajan

The diagnosis and prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) by current clinical means is inadequate. Biomarkers of kidney injury that are easily measured and unaffected by physiological variables could revolutionize the management of AKI. Our objective was to systematically review the diagnostic and prognostic utility of urine and serum biomarkers of AKI in humans. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed and EMBASE databases (January 2000–August 2009) for biomarker studies that could be classified into the following categories: (a) confirmation of the diagnosis of established AKI, (b) early prediction of AKI, and (c) prognostication of AKI. We identified 54 manuscripts published since 2000 that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Urinary interleukin-18 (IL-18), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) are potentially useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of established AKI. Urinary NGAL, IL-18, and liver-type fatty acid binding protein, and serum NGAL and cystatin C represent the most promising biomarkers for early prediction of AKI. Urinary cystatin C, 1-microglobulin, NAG and retinol-binding protein may be useful to predict severity and outcomes of AKI. In conclusion, we identified several studies of promising biomarkers for the diagnosis, prediction and prognostication of AKI. However, we note several limitations, including small sample sizes, inadequate gold standard, exclusion of patients with chronic kidney disease, incomplete statistical analyses, utilization of research-based assays and a paucity of studies examining prediction for clinical outcomes. Future studies will need to address these limitations in order for further progress to be made.

  G Ramesh , C. D Krawczeski , J. G Woo , Y Wang and P. Devarajan

Background and objectives: Netrin-1, a laminin-related axon guidance molecule, is highly induced and excreted in the urine after acute kidney injury (AKI) in animals. Here, we determined the utility of urinary netrin-1 levels to predict AKI in humans undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Serial urine samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for netrin-1 in 26 patients who developed AKI (defined as a 50% or greater increase in serum creatinine after CPB) and 34 controls (patients who did not develop AKI after CPB).

Results: Using serum creatinine, AKI was detected on average only 48 hours after CPB. In contrast, urine netrin-1 increased at 2 hours after CPB, peaked at 6 hours (2462 ± 370 pg/mg creatinine), and remained elevated up to 48 hours after CPB. The predictive power of netrin-1 as demonstrated by area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve for diagnosis of AKI at 2, 6, and 12 hours after CPB was 0.74, 0.86, and 0.89, respectively. The 6-hour urine netrin-1 measurement strongly correlated with duration and severity of AKI, as well as length of hospital stay (all P < 0.05). Adjusting for CPB time, the 6-hour netrin-1 remained a powerful independent predictor of AKI, with an odds ratio of 1.20 (95% confidence interval: 1.08 to 1.41; P = 0.006).

Conclusion: Our results suggest that netrin-1 is an early, predictive biomarker of AKI after CPB and may allow for the reliable early diagnosis and prognosis of AKI after CPB, before the rise in serum creatinine.

  K Soto , S Coelho , B Rodrigues , H Martins , F Frade , S Lopes , L Cunha , A. L Papoila and P. Devarajan

Background and objectives: The diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) is usually based on changes in serum creatinine, which is a poor marker of early renal dysfunction. The discriminative and predictive abilities of serum and urinary cystatin C were examined for the prediction of AKI.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: In this prospective cohort study, serum and urinary cystatin C were serially measured in a heterogeneous group of patients (n = 616) presenting to a tertiary care emergency department. The primary outcome was AKI, classified according to RIFLE and AKIN criteria. The secondary outcome was an adjudication based on clinical criteria to AKI, prerenal azotemia, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and normal kidney function.

Results: Patients were adjudicated to have AKI in 21.1%, prerenal azotemia in 25.8%, CKD in 2.4%, and normal kidney function in 50.7%. For the diagnosis of AKI, the discriminatory ability of urinary creatinine and cystatin C was marginal. Both serum cystatin C and serum creatinine (at presentation and 6 hours later) showed high discriminatory ability for the diagnosis of AKI. However, only serum cystatin C attained a significant early predictive power (Hosmer-Lemeshow P value > 0.05). Serum cystatin C could differentiate between AKI and prerenal azotemia, but not between AKI and CKD.

Conclusions: Serum cystatin C is an early, predictive biomarker of AKI, which outperforms serum creatinine in the heterogeneous emergency department setting. However, neither biomarker discriminated between AKI and CKD. Additional biomarkers continue to be needed for improved specificity in the diagnosis of community-acquired AKI.

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