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Articles by P. K Singh
Total Records ( 3 ) for P. K Singh
  A Agarwal , D Gupta , G Yadav , P Goyal , P. K Singh and U. Singh

BACKGROUND: Postoperative sore throat (POST) contributes to postoperative morbidity. Licorice has been used as an expectorant in cough and cold preparations. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of licorice gargle for attenuating POST.

METHODS: Forty adults (18-60 yr), ASA physical status I and II of either sex, undergoing elective lumber laminectomy were randomized into two groups of 20 each. Group C: received water; Group L: received 0.5 g licorice in water. Both groups received a 30 mL mixture for 30 s, 5 min before anesthesia which was standardized. The incidence and severity of POST at rest and on swallowing and side effects were assessed at 0, 2, 4, and 24 h, postoperatively. Severity of POST was assessed by visual analog scale (between 0 and 100 mm; where 0 means no sore throat and 100 means worst imaginable sore throat). Postextubation cough was assessed immediately after tracheal extubation. Data were analyzed by Z test and Fisher’s exact test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant.

RESULTS: POST (incidence and severity) was reduced in the Group L compared with Group C at rest and on swallowing for all time points (P < 0.05), except that the severity of POST at rest, at 24 h, was similar in both groups (P > 0.05). Postextubation cough was reduced in Group L compared with Group C (P < 0.05). There was no difference in side effects between groups (P > 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Licorice gargle performed 5 min before anesthesia is effective in attenuating the incidence and severity of POST.

  S. P Ambesh , N Singh , D Gupta , P. K Singh and U. Singh

Preinduction i.v. fentanyl bolus is associated with coughing in 28–65% of patients. Fentanyl-induced coughing (FIC) is not always benign and can be remarkably troublesome at the most critical moment of induction of anaesthesia when airway reflex is lost. We postulated that the huffing manoeuvre, a forced expiration against open glottis, just before i.v. fentanyl, may suppress this undesirable spasmodic cough.


Three hundred patients of ASA I and II, aged 18–60 yr, undergoing elective surgical procedures were randomly allocated into two groups consisting of 150 patients. Both groups received i.v. fentanyl (2.5 µg kg–1). Group 1 patients breathed normally whereas Group 2 patients were asked to perform huffing manoeuvre just before the fentanyl injection. The incidence of cough was recorded for 1 min before the induction of anaesthesia, and graded as mild (1–2 cough), moderate (3–5 cough), and severe (>5 cough). The incidence of FIC was analysed with Fisher's exact test and severity was analysed with the Mann–Whitney U-test. A P-value of <0.05 was considered significant.


The incidence of cough was 32% in the control group and 4% in the huffing manoeuvre group (P<0.00). In the control group, 12% of FIC cases were moderate to severe in nature whereas no patient suffered severe coughing in the huffing manoeuvre group (P=0.049).


A huffing manoeuvre performed just before i.v. fentanyl (2.5 µg kg–1) significantly reduces the incidence and severity of FIC in the majority of the patients.

  U. K Singh , R Prasad , B. P Jaiswal , P. K Singh and C. P. Thakur

A randomized study was carried out to compare the efficacy and adverse reactions of daily vs. alternate day regimens of amphotericin B in children with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Six hundred and five children of VL below 14 years of age were randomized into two groups; Group A (302), who received amphotericin B at a dose of 1 mg kg–1 day–1 for 15 days and Group B (303); same doses but on alternate days. All patients in both groups were cured, who had completed course of amphotericin B therapy. None had relapsed at 1 and 6 months of follow-up. Adverse reactions in both groups were non-significant. The duration of stay and cost of therapy was significantly lower in Group A children who left the hospital against medical advice, which was also significantly more in Group B. Thus, daily regimen of amphotericin B is equally effective, well tolerated, not more toxic and cost-effective than alternate day regimen, which is currently practiced.

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