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Articles by Ogbonnaya Chukwu
Total Records ( 8 ) for Ogbonnaya Chukwu
  Ogbonnaya Chukwu and John Jiya Musa
  In the arid region, drainage ditches are necessary to remove water required for leaching undesirable salts from the soil and the disposal of excess rainfall. Chemical and organic changes in soil conditions are anticipated under irrigation. Several methods are used to irrigate farm lands throughout, the world but the method used in this study area is, the surface irrigation method. Sterilized bottle containers were used to collect water and soil samples from the study area. The samples were given a pre-treatment of being stored in an air conditioned room with temperature not more than 25°C to reduce microbial activities. The 5 samples had a constant chloride ion (Cl-) of 20 mg L 1, Sodium Chloride (NaCl) of 32.8 mg L 1, iron (Fe+2) of 0.7 mg L 1 and pH of 7. The pH of the water samples was found to be within the borderline, which implies that the water used for irrigation in the study area was neither acidic nor alkaline.
  Ogbonnaya Chukwu
  This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of effluents from food processing industries on the receiving streams. Effluents from two industries were analyzed into their physical constituents to determine their conformity with national and international standards. The results of the effluents analysis showed that the physical parameters: temperature, turbidity, total solids, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids violated either Nigeria’s Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) or FAO standards or both. It was concluded that industrial activities if not properly monitored and controlled normally lead to environmental pollution and degradation. In order to protect the environment from the adverse effects of food processing industries; utilization of best available technology, payment of optimal liability compensation to local communities and institutionalization of adequate abatement measures were recommended.
  Ogbonnaya Chukwu
  A 24 full factorial design was used to predict the impact of NAS Foods Nigeria Limited on the water quality of its environment. The factorial, main and interaction effects of four water pollutants, namely, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), sulphide of lead (PbS), Total Nitrates (TNL) and Total Undissolved Solids (TUS) on Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) were obtained statistically. From the sensitive analysis, it was concluded that all the main effects and interactions in the model have significant impacts on the level of BOD of the surface water. However, TDS, TNL and TUS have higher detrimental influences. On the other hand, the interactions TDS/PbS/TUS, TDS/PbS and PbS/TUS all have high incremental influences on Dissolved Oxygen (DO). The statistical analysis of the experimental data showed that the developed model is adequate for obtaining optimum conditions of 2000 mg L-1 for TDS, 0.2 mg L-1 for PbS, 10 mg L-1 for TNL and 2030 mg L-1 for TUS. Validation of the model gave a correlation coefficient of 0.999251 between the measured and predicted values.
  Ogbonnaya Chukwu
  This study was carried out to determine the prospect of incorporating solid wastes from food processing industries into livestock feeds. Solid wastes from 2 industries were analyzed into their components to determine the possibility of their use as livestock feeds. The results of the analysis showed that the solid wastes could be a good source of livestock feed. It was recommended that the practice of dumping solid wastes on industrial premises, into near-by streams and water bodies, or buried into landfills should be stopped as such practices could lead to environmental degradation, economic losses and poses public health hazards to human, aquatic and land animals.
  Ogbonnaya Chukwu and Aminat Joy Abdul-kadir
  Established standard methods of analysis were used to determine the proximate composition of acha grains as part of their nutritional evaluation. The results showed that the lipid content and ash value of acha are higher than the reported values for most cereal grains. The protein content of acha is high compared with that of other grains. The fibre content of acha is lower than the values for sorghum and maize but higher than those for millet and rice. The caloric value of acha compares well with those for most cereals. Acha is richer in calcium, magnesium, iron and copper than most cereals but poorer in potassium, sodium, lead and manganese. With the exception of methionine the essential amino acid content of acha is lower than that for most grains while the leucine, methionine and cysteine values are slightly higher than the values in the FAO reference protein. It was concluded that acha is a cheap source of carbohydrate for man and livestock.
  Ogbonnaya Chukwu and Yahaya Sadiq
  The objectives of this study are the production of mayonnaise from groundnut and soya oils and the determination of the storage stability of the mayonnaise by monitoring the development of rancidity and increase in peroxide values. Mayonnaise was prepared from groundnut and soya oils with the level of oils varied from 65-78%. The mayonnaise produced was stored for a period of 6 weeks and then analyzed for changes in free fatty acid (FFA) and peroxide values. The results showed that on storage the peroxide values of the mayonnaise products increased. This shows their susceptibility to go rancid with time. It was also found out that the 65 and 78% soya oil mayonnaise had shelf-life of 40 days and 32 days, respectively while the 65 and 78% groundnut oil mayonnaise had shelf-life of 34 days and 26 days in that order at room temperature. Sensory evaluation carried out by a team of panelists on the mayonnaise products showed that mayonnaise produced from 65% soya and groundnut oils was more preferred to that produced from 78% soya and groundnut oils.
  Ogbonnaya Chukwu
  In developing countries, it is common to cite industries without carrying out environmental impact assessment. This is the case of the 2 industries audited in this study. It becomes necessary, therefore, to audit food processing industries in Nigeria to determine their impact on geology, soil and ecology. This will enhance a cleaner and healthier environment. In this study, the impact of food processing industries on geology, soil and ecology of their environments were reported. The method adopted is the Investigative Survey Research Approach (ISRA), which involves the collection of baseline and screening data. The effects of pollution on geology, soil and ecology include depletion of natural reserves, endangered terrestrial habitats leading to migration of arboreal animals to safer places and loss of them in the host communities, increased compaction due to increased vehicular and human traffic and reduction in yield of lands within the vicinity of the industries. The reduced soil fertility could be attributed to leachate from chemical wastes from NAS. The need for environmental impact auditing and the importance of impact auditing as a project management tool were highlighted. It was concluded, that the food processing industries do have positive and negative impacts on their environments and recommendations towards alleviating negative impacts on the environment were made.
  Ogbonnaya Chukwu
  Abattoir wastes are hazardous as many contain small quantities of components which are potentially dangerous to man and the environment. These wastes can seep through the ground and contaminate groundwater with nitrate and bacteria. This study analyzed the effects of pollution on groundwater around an abattoir using Minna abattoir as a case study. Physical, Chemical and Organic parameters of two wells (W1 and W2) around the abattoir were analyzed. The values of the parameters obtained from the analyses were: Turbidity (115.0, 11.0 FTU), electrical conductivity (260.0, 250.0 mg L-1), pH (8.4, 8.4), Hardness (72.0, 113.0 mg L-1), Iron Content (0.44, 0.51 mg L-1), Nitrate (1.0, 0.6 mg L-1), Phosphate (2.04, 0.6 mg L-1), Magnesium (10.5, 16.5 mg L-1), Nitrite (0.152, 0.016 mg L-1), BOD (3.25, 2.41 mg L-1), COD (2.11, 1.92 mg L-1) and DO (1.50, 0.86 mg L-1). The first value in each bracket is for W1 (well1) and the second value is for W2 (well 2). The results of the analyses of the wells when compared with World Health Organization (WHO) standards for drinking water were higher than recommended limits; this implies that the portability of the tested groundwater is not acceptable. The well water should be treated before use.
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