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Articles by O.U. Udensi
Total Records ( 8 ) for O.U. Udensi
  E.V. Ikpeme , U.B. Ekaluo , Y.B. Ibiang , O.U. Udensi and P.B. Ekpo
  This study was designed to evaluate the effect of ethanolic stem bark extract of Nauclea latifolia, Cylicodiscus gabunensis and Araliopsis souyauxii; three plants used locally as anti-malarials, on haematology and serum enzyme levels in albino rats. Employing a 3x3 factorial arrangement, thirty six male albino rats were randomly assigned into nine groups of four rats each, treated daily with ethanol extract corresponding to 0, 125 and 225 mg kg-1 b.wt. of the three plants. Treatment was administered orally for two months, after which the animals were sacrificed for estimation of study parameters. All data were subjected to analysis of variance, with conclusions drawn at 5% probability level. Results obtained showed that while N. latifolia and A. souyauxii gave no evidence of potential haemo-toxicity, C. gabunensis at 225 mg kg-1 b.wt. significantly reduced haemoglobin content and packed cell volume of the animals. Although alanine transaminase revealed no significant differences, all plants induced significant elevation in alkaline phosphatase levels at both 125 and 225 mg kg-1 b.wt. Aspartate transaminase was also significantly elevated in all plant groups at 225 mg kg-1 b.wt. Overall, the potential toxic effect of these anti-malarial herbs was observed to be more on serum enzyme levels, than on haematology. In quest for standardized anti-malarial preparations from these herbs, we recommend a dose no more than 225 mg kg-1 b.wt. for N. latifolia and A. souyauxii and 125 mg kg-1 b.wt. for C. gabunensis.
  E.V. Ikpeme , O.U. Udensi , U.B. Ekaluo , M.E. Kooffreh , C.M. Okolo , P.B. Ekpo and N.C. Ogbonna
  The utilization of molecular markers-assisted genetic diversity study is critical and imperative for a more robust selection and breeding programmes in aquaculture. Twenty C. gariepinus species were randomly selected, 5 each from four Rivers/locations-Okurikan (OKU), Lemna (LMN), UNICAL Fish Farm (UFF) and MCC cultured fish site, in Cross River State, Nigeria for genetic diversity study using RAPD technique. Genomic DNA extraction and purification from caudal fin tissue sample was performed using ZR Genomic DNA tissue extraction Kit, primed using OPA09, OPA11 and OPA13 RAPD primers and amplified using PCR. The amplified fragments were ran on gel electrophoresis and visualized under ethidium bromide dye. Thirty four bands were generated by the three RAPD primers from the four C. gariepinus populations of which 28 were polymorphic, accounting for 82.35%. Polymorphism revealed by each fish population ranged from 92.86-100% while, gene diversity estimates ranged from 0.246±0.16-0.385±0.09. Intra-population similarity index ranged from 42.49-78.4% while, the inter-population similarity index across all population combinations ranged from 52.32-71.69%. These result also revealed that as genetic distances increases, genetic identities narrows between the wild and the cultured species. UPGMA dendrogram generated two major clusters with C. gariepinus species from OKU, UFF and MCC in cluster-1 and C. gariepinus species from LMN in cluster-2. Implicitly though, our results suggest that there were several genetic diversity in the populations studied, especially between the cultured and the wild, which could encourage selection of C. gariepinus from OKU and LMN populations for the purpose of breeding and improvement.
  E.V. Ikpeme , O.U. Udensi , M.C. Okolo , F.U. Ogban , N.G. Ufford , E.U. Odo and B.O. Asuquo
  Genetic diversity in germplasm is cardinal for breeders as it provides potential genotype (s) for breeding and improvement. Sixty C. gariepinus samples were obtained from the wild and cultured populations in Cross River, Nigeria. Twenty one morphometric traits were taken from each fish sample and were later prepared for proximate and mineral composition analyses. Predictive Analytics Software (PASW) version 20.0 was used for data analyses. Results showed that the standard length, pre-dorsal and pre-anal distances, pre-pectoral distance, head length, head width, eye diameter, distance between occipital process and caudal fin of C. garipeinus from the wild populations were significantly higher than those from the cultured populations. Calcium and magnesium contents were high in C. garipeinus from the wild populations while protein content was higher in the cultured C. garipeinus. The PC1 and PC2 contributed 44.89 and 14.00% to the total variability of 84.17%. From PC1, standard length (0.924), pre-dorsal distance (0.856), pre-anal distance (0.941), dorsal fin length (0.890), anal fin length (0.839), head length (0.946), head width (0.863), inter-orbital distance (0.820) and eye diameter (0.896) contributed significantly to the total variability observed in C. gariepinus populations. Cluster analysis revealed two major clusters for both morphometric and proximate composition, which were largely population-dependent. These suggest that C. gariepinus breeders and farmers should source C. gariepinus species from the wild in order to genetically enrich the gene pool. Additionally, head region-based morphometric traits might be more informative in distinguishing wild and cultured populations of C. gariepinus.
  E.V. Ikpeme , U.B. Ekaluo , O.U. Udensi , E.E. Ekerette and M. Pius
  This study was aimed at assessing the reproductive activities of male albino rats treated with crude leaf extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis. The total of thirty sexually matured male albino rats of about eleven weeks, weighing between 120-180 g were divided into five groups (A, B, C, D and E) with 6 rats in each group. Rats in group A served as the control and were fed with normal commercial feed only; groups B, C, D and E received 150, 300, 450 and 600 mg kg-1 Body Weight (BW) of the test substance, respectively. The results of the phytochemistry showed high content of phytates (49.27%) and other bioactive compounds in the leaf extracts. Results on the sperm parameters revealed significant reduction (p<0.05) in the sperm count, viability and motility. Sperm head abnormalities were also significant in the different groups with the highest recorded at 600 mg kg-1 BW (8.75%). Although, there were no significant difference in the epididymides weight of rats in the different groups, the testes weight was significantly reduced (p<0.05). From the present results, there is a dire need to always apply caution on the use of B. spectabilis in combating diseases considering the possible adverse effects that it could pose on spermatogenic pathways.
  O.U. Udensi and V. Ontui
  The need to optimize flow cytometric analysis for the determination of ploidy level is a worthwhile venture to precisely know at what concentration of a mutagen and at what time of exposure polyploidy could be induced. Flow cytometry was used to determine the polyploidy inducing-capacity of colchicine in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill sp). Seeds of pigeon pea were soaked in three different concentrations of colchicine-5 mg, 10 and 15 mg L-1 for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively, while the control group was soaked in water. Treated seeds and those from the control were planted in a greenhouse using a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Results show that colchicine induced tetraploids (4n) and mixoploids (2n+ 4n) as the concentration of colchicine increased and soaking duration. Days to seedling emergence increased as concentration of colchicine and duration of soaking increased while germination rate decreased proportionately with the increase in colchicine concentration and soaking duration but did not significantly affect percentage seedling survival. Explicitly, colchicine has the capacity of inducing polyploidy; especially tetraploids on the seeds of pigeon pea, which obviously could be harnessed for further breeding and improvement of the pigeon pea.
  E.V. Ikpeme , L.E. Okonko and O.U. Udensi
  This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin, singly and in combination on reproductive physiology of male albino rats. Thirty six mature male rats were used for this study. Completely randomized design was used in a 3×3 factorial format. Meaning there were 3 treatments (chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos+cypermethrin) and each treatment had 3 groups (A, B and C) and each group had 4 rats. Group A was the control and received distilled water. Group B received 5 mg kg–1 b.wt., of treatment while Group C received 10 mg kg–1 b.wt., of treatment. Treatments were administered via oral gavage and lasted for 65 days. The rats were sacrificed; blood and sperm samples were collected and examined. The result revealed that the treatments significantly (p<0.05) reduced epididymal sperm motility, viability and count of rats. While sperm head abnormality increased significantly in treated rats. Furthermore, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone and prolactin levels reduced significantly (p<0.05) in treated rats compared to those in the control group. The findings of this study therefore indicate that repeated oral exposure to chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin, both singly and in combination had adverse effects on the reproductive physiology of male albino rats.
  U.B. Ekaluo , E.V. Ikpeme , O.U. Udensi , E.E. Ekerette , S.O. Usen and S.F. Usoroh
  The current research was aimed at comparing the leaf extracts of two medicinal plants (Moringa oleifera and Azadiracta indica) for antioxidant and free radical scavenging potentials in different extracting solvents (absolute ethanol, 70 and 50% ethanol). Different in vitro assays such as total phenolic and flavonoid content, 2-2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, metal chelating activity, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity were employed in the study. The results revealed that A. indica contained more phenols and flavonoids than M. oleifera with the different extracting solvents. The amount of phenols and flavonoids in A. indica played a pivotal role in scavenging more of the DPPH radical at a lower inhibitory concentration, IC50 of 77.94 μg mL-1 than in M. oleifera at 118.96 μg mL-1 in absolute ethanol. Moringa oleifera was a better scavenger of the DPPH radical in 70 and 50% ethanol. In absolute ethanol, A. indica also chelated 50% of the metal ion at IC50 of 0.22 μg mL-1 which was even better than ascorbic acid (5.95 μg mL-1) and gallic acid (0.503 μg mL-1) standards. The values for A. indica were also comparably better than those of M. oleifera for reducing power and total antioxidant capacity at the respective concentrations. The results are indicative of the antioxidant and free radical scavenging potentials of M. oleifera and A. indica. Comparatively, A. indica was better than M. oleifera in doing the job and absolute ethanol extracts were better than 70 and 50% ethanol extracts in the scavenging potential.
  E.V. Ikpeme , O.U. Udensi , E.E. Ekerette and U.H. Okon
  Aspartame (ASP) consumption has been reported to implicate oxidative stress and antioxidant supplements from plant origin are one of the safest ways of averting their effect in the body. The current study was aimed at ascertaining the ability of aspartame (ASP) to induce oxidative stress in rats as well as assessing the potential of ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seeds extracts in averting the aspartame induced oxidative stress. This was done using sperm parameters and biochemical assays such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, melonaldehyde (MDA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphate (ALP). Forty eight sexually matured male albino rats were divided into six groups (A-F) with eight rats in each group. Group A served as the positive control and received physiological saline. Group B served as the negative control and were administered with 1000 mg kg–1 b.wt., of aspartame (ASP). Rats in group C were administered with 1000 mg kg–1 b.wt., ASP+500 mg kg–1 b.wt., of ginger extracts while rats in group D were administered with 1000 ASP+1000 mg kg–1 b.wt., of ginger extracts. On the other hand, rats in group E received 1000 mg kg–1 b.wt., ASP+500 mg kg–1 b.wt., of watermelon seed extracts while rats in group F received 1000 mg kg–1 b.wt., ASP+1000 mg kg–1 b.wt., of watermelon seed extracts. The result revealed that administration of ASP reduced sperm viability, sperm count and increased sperm head abnormalities significantly (p<0.05) while sperm motility was not affected by ASP administration in the rats. Superoxide dismutase and GPx levels were increased significantly by ginger and watermelon seeds extracts. Although ginger extract reduced more of lipid peroxidation (MDA), watermelon seeds extract increased the activities of SOD, GPx and reduced AST, ALT and ALP in the liver of rats at 1000 mg kg–1 b.wt., than the extract of ginger. Thus, the extracts of these two medicinal plants are possible antioxidant reservoir and may provide reliable solution in averting oxidative stress pathologies.
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