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Articles by O.J. Babayemi
Total Records ( 9 ) for O.J. Babayemi
  O.J. Babayemi , U.A. Inyang , O.J. Ifut and L.J. Isaac
  Forages/feed conservation offers strategic and sustainable solutions to the off season feeds for ruminants. Against this background the nutritive value of ensiled cassava wastes and Albizia saman was studied. Secondary metabolites and chemical composition of ensiled Cassava Wastes (CSW) with Albizia saman Pods (ASP) were determined. In vitro gas production of CSW and ASP at 24 h incubation was assessed. The ensiled mixtures were: 100% CSW, 75% CSW+25% ASP, 50% CSW+50% ASP, 25% CSW + 75% ASP and 100% ASP. Saponin was detected in 50% ASP inclusion and 100% ASP silages while tannin was recorded for 100% ASP silage. Crude Protein (CP) content ranged from 4.81% in 100% CSW to 24.50% in 100% ASP silages. The CP values increased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing inclusion of ASP. Metabolizable Energy (ME), Organic Matter Digestibility (OMD) and Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA) obtained for all silage mixtures were significantly (p<0.05) different from each other. Potential gas production and potentially degradable fractions (a+b) differed significantly (p<0.05) amongst each other while rate of fermentation did not differ (p>0.05). Total gas production did not differ (p>0.05) at 3 h while for other hours (6-24 h) there were significant (p<0.05) differences with 100% CSW silage being significant over others while 100% ASP had the lowest in all the hours observed. Methane (mL-1 200 mg DM) production ranged from 7-27, the highest being from 100% CSW while the least was observed in 100% ASP. The findings of this study showed that an inclusion level of 50, 75 and even 100% ASP could support small ruminants during period of drought as against sole feeding of cassava wastes.
  O.J. Babayemi , O.J. Ifut , U.A. Inyang and L.J. Isaac
  An investigation was carried out to assess the quality characteristics, proximate composition and cell wall fractions of 6 months ensiled cassava wastes and Albizia saman pods. Cassava Wastes (CSW) and Albizia saman Pods (ASP) were mixed for preparation of silage as 100% CSW, 75% CSW+25% ASP, 50%CSW + 50% ASP, 25% CSW + 75% ASP and 100% ASP. The pH of silage ranged from 3.38-4.61. Silage structure was visible while texture ranged from wet and firm to dry and very firm. Colour ranged from dark brown in CSW to reddish brown in ASP. Odour of silage was generally alcoholic. Values for crude protein (3.50-24.50 g/100 g) increased with increasing level of ASP. There was no trend observed in the values for NDF, ADF, ADL, Cellulose and Hemicellulose. An inclusion level of 50 and 75% of ASP in the diet showed good quality silage and enhanced nutrient composition.
  Modupe O. Daodu and O.J. Babayemi
  In Nigeria, pasture is routinely available such that it is abundant in the rainy season and very scare in the dry season. Browse trees are not seasonal and a number of the browse trees are acceptable by cattle, sheep and goats as supplements to the scanty pasture in the off-season. It is against this background that the present study was carried out to assess the nutritive value of some relatively unexploited browse plants including neem (Azadirachta indica), almond (Terminalia catappa), mango (Mangifera indica) and bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina). Chemical composition of the forages was determined for CP, NDF, ADF and ADL. Presence of secondary metabolites including tannin, saponin and steroids was determined qualitatively. Residue obtained from qualitatively determined secondary metabolites (extracted) and that of whole samples (unextracted) were further subjected to in vitro gas production at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 h incubation periods to elicit extent of degradability. Results indicate that CP, NDF, ADF and ADL ranged from 10.5-21.8, 34.5-38.5, 21.0-26.3 and 6.5-15.5% respectively. Saponin was present in mango tree while all samples showed presence of condensed tannin and steroids. Extracted residue enhanced degradability as total gas production, metabolizable energy, organic matter digestibility and methane production were more than those of the whole browse samples. It is concluded that browse trees have nutritive value and the presence of secondary metabolites in them are assets for the reduction of methane capable of increasing environmental pollution.
  O.J. Babayemi , M.A. Bamikole and Modupe O. Daodu
  Eight tropical seeds from browse, shrubs and pulses plants were assessed for their nutritive value using in vitro gas production technique. Dry Matter (DM), Crude Protein (CP), crude fibre, ash, ether extract and Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) were analyzed. Milled seeds were incubated using 200 mg/30 ml inoculum for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 h. At post incubation, the total gas volume was measured for methane using 4 ml of 10 M NaOH. Dynamics of gas production characteristics over time were described by equation Vt = Vf x [1 + exp {2-4 x S x (t-L)}] - 1. Metabolizable Energy (ME; MJ/kg DM), Organic Matter Digestibility (OMD; %) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA; μmol/200 mg DM)) were estimated. DM was lowest (88.1%) in Leucaena leucocephala and was the best (95.6%) in Tephrosia bracteolata seeds. CP ranged from 25-38.9% being the least (25.0%) for Lablab purpureus and the highest (38.9%) for Tehprosia candida. NDF of the seeds varied from 27.1% in Tephrosia bracteolata to 49.1% in Leucaena leucocephala. The volume of gas produced by the seeds consistently increased (p<0.05) and was significantly (p<0.05) highest in pulse legumes. Potential extent (Vt) of gas production ranged from 36.8-53.6 and that of fractional rate of gas production from 0.043-0.07. The ranged values 7.5-10.4, 50.7-70.4 and 0.751-1.185 for ME, OMD and SCFA respectively were significantly (p<0.05) highest in Tephrosia bracteolata seeds. The CH4 production varied from 148 μml in Albizia lebbeck to 300 μml in Carnavalia ensiformis. The result showed that the seeds were high in nutrients, digestible and metabolizable energy with relatively low methane production and therefore could be used for ruminants as feedstuffs.
  R. Olajide , A.O. Akinsoyinu , O.J. Babayemi , A.B. Omojola , A.O. Abu and K.D. Afolabi
  Effective utilization of wild cocoyam corm in livestock feed is limited by the presence of anti-nutrient components which requires some forms of processing. The effect of soaking, cooking and fermentation on proximate composition, caloric values and contents of Anti-Nutritional Factors (ANFs) of wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.)] Schott corm were determined with the aim of investigating its suitability as a feed ingredient. Raw, Cooked, Soaked and Fermented Wild Cocoyam Corm (i.e. RWCC, CWCC, SWCC and FWCC respectively) were sun dried and their proximate composition, Gross Energy (GE), Metabolizable Energy (ME) and contents of ANFs were determined. Crude protein was significantly (p<0.05) highest in FWCC and significantly (p<0.05) lowest in CWCC. Crude fibre significantly (p<0.05) decreased by the processing methods with the highest values obtained in RWCC and SWCC. Ether extract of RWCC was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for the other processed Wild Cocoyam Corm (WCC). The highest Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE), GE, ME and ME as percentage of GE was obtained in RWCC, FWCC, FWCC and RWCC respectively. Contents of ANFs [tannins, phytate, oxalate, saponin and Hydrocyanide (HCN)] were significantly (p<0.05) reduced by processing methods with RWCC recording the highest value. Fermentation had the highest (p<0.05) percentage reductive values of 42.86, 69.23, 95.05, 73.58 and 57.91% in condensed tannins, hydrolysable tannins, phytate, oxalate and HCN respectively, while the highest (p<0.05) percentage reduction of 48.39% in saponin was obtained in CWCC. There were no activities detected for trypsin inhibitors in all the processed forms of WCC assayed. The results show that the processing techniques adopted significantly (p<0.05) enhanced the nutrients and caloric components and reduced the array of ANFs in RWCC, suggestive of its potential as a feed resource.
  T.O. Abegunde , O.J. Babayemi and A.O. Akinsoyinu
  In vitro fermentation technique was used to evaluate the replacement effects of Panicum maximum (PM) with Ficus polita (FP) and Cassava Peels (CPL) at four levels {Treatments 1 (T1), 2 (T2), 3 (T3) and 4 (T4)} in dry and wet seasons. (T1) 0% FP+ 90% PM + 10% CPL; (T2) 30% FP+60% PM + 10% CPL; (T3) 60% FP+30% PM + 10% CPL and (T4) 90% FP+0% PM + 10% CPL. Chemical composition and qualitative analysis of saponin and tannins were determined. In vitro Gas Production (IVGP) of diets were carried out over 24 h. Metabolizable Energy (ME), Organic Matter Digestibility (OMD) and Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) were predicted. Methane (CH4) production was also measured. Results indicated that FP contained high levels of protein in the dry (15.7 g/100 g DM) and wet (19.9 g/100 g DM) seasons. Crude Fibre (CF), Ether Extract (EE), ash and Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) values in the dry and wet seasons were 22.0 and 19.0 g/100 g DM, 20.5 and 17.8 g/100 g DM, 7.8 and 10.0 g/100 g DM, 67.0 and 88.0 g/100 g DM, respectively. Qualitative analysis of secondary metabolites in FP indicated the presence of saponin in the dry season while tannin was absent in both seasons. IVGP, ME, OMD, SCFA and methanogenesis were not significantly (p<0.05) affected by levels of inclusion of FP. Results revealed that based on the availability of FP, it can be fed to goats at any level of inclusion up to 60% with PM without any detrimental effects.
  O.O. Falola , M.C. Alasa and O.J. Babayemi
  Vetiver grass was harvested at 4, 6 and 8-week regrowth and were ensiled with cassava peels at ratio 60:40 and 100% without cassava peels. The quality and chemical composition of the silages were assessed. The silages along with fresh unensiled re-growths of vetiver grass were fed to WAD goats in a cafeteria method to determine the coefficient of preference of the diets. Results showed that ensiling reduced both the crude protein and crude fiber contents. Ensiling with cassava peels improved the quality and acceptability of the silage while ensiled grasses without cassava peels had poor silage quality and rejection by the animals.
  O.O. Falola , M.C. Alasa , A.J. Amuda and O.J. Babayemi
  Vetiver grass was harvested at 4, 6 and 8-week old re-growth. The chemical composition and quantitative analyses of anti-nutritional components were determined. The result showed that dry matter and fiber content increased with age while crude protein, mineral content and anti-nutritional components reduced with age. It was concluded that age of re-growth significantly affect the nutrient and anti-nutrients contents of vetiver grass.
  M.C. Alasa , O.O Falola and O.J. Babayemi
  Silage making is an effective way of preservation both the quantity and quality of forages over hay making which is of paramount importance in sheep production. Supplementing Lablab purpureus (L. purpureus) improves the quality of Panicum maximum (P. maximum) in (P. maximum)/Lablab purpureus mixtures silages when used as basal diet. Information on P. maximum with L. purpureus mixtures as silage is scanty. The potential of Panicum maximum ensiled with two cultivars of Lablab purpureus (Highworth and Rongai) as dry season feed was therefore investigated. Silage characteristics were determined. Twenty-one West African dwarf rams were allotted to seven treatments on varying proportions of P. maximum ensiled with L. purpureus: 100% P. maximum (1), 75% P. maximum+25% Highworth (2), 50% P. maximum+50% Highworth (3), 25% P. maximum+75% Highworth (4) (75% P. maximum and 25% Rongai (5), 50% P. maximum and 50% Rongai (6) (25% Panicum maximum+75% Rongai (7) mixtures at 5% body weight for 98 days to assess Feed Intake (FI), Body Weight Gain (BWG), Dry Matter Digestibility (DMD) and nitrogen retention. Colour of silages was olive green with pleasant odour, firm texture, normal temperature (23-25°C) and pH range of 4.1-4.5. Least CP value was observed in diet 1 (9.0%) and highest in diet 4 (16.8%). Highest neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, acid detergent lignin were 56.1, 39.4 and 9.4%, respectively observed for diet 1. The least FI (573.87g) and BWG (23.81g) occurred in rams fed A while the highest FI (715.47g) and BWG (47.62g) was reported for rams fed G and D, respectively. Least DMD (40.4%) was obtained from rams fed E while highest (56.9%) was for rams fed G and percent retention differed significantly among treatment such that rams fed B had the least (30.7%) while those fed G had the highest (56.7%). 100% Panicum maximum diet had the least FI and WG while animals fed 25% Panicum maximum with 75% Rongai had the highest FI. Rams fed 25% Highworth had the least nitrogen retention while those fed 75% Rongai had the highest nitrogen retention. Better feed intake, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization and growth rates of rams could be achieved when 25% Panicum maximum basal diets are supplemented with either of the two cultivars of lablab (Highworth or Rongai) at 75%. Rams placed on 25% Panicum maximum with 75% lablab performed better followed by those fed 50% Panicum maximum with 50% lablab. Similarly rams placed on 75% Panicum maximum with 25% Lablab purpureus performed better than those on sole Panicum maximum. 25% Panicum maximum ensiled with 75% lablab was thereby recommended.
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