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Articles by O. Melander
Total Records ( 3 ) for O. Melander
  S Enhorning , T. J Wang , P. M Nilsson , P Almgren , B Hedblad , G Berglund , J Struck , N. G Morgenthaler , A Bergmann , E Lindholm , L Groop , V Lyssenko , M Orho Melander , C Newton Cheh and O. Melander

Background— Animal studies suggest that the arginine vasopressin system may play a role in glucose metabolism, but data from humans are limited.

Methods and Results— We analyzed plasma copeptin (copeptin), a stable C-terminal fragment of the arginine vasopressin prohormone. Using baseline and longitudinal data from a Swedish population-based sample (n=4742; mean age, 58 years; 60% women) and multivariable logistic regression, we examined the association of increasing quartiles of copeptin (lowest quartile as reference) with prevalent diabetes mellitus at baseline, insulin resistance (top quartile of fasting plasma insulin among nondiabetic subjects), and incident diabetes mellitus on long-term follow-up. New-onset diabetes mellitus was ascertained through 3 national and regional registers. All models were adjusted for clinical and anthropometric risk factors, cystatin C, and C-reactive protein. In cross-sectional analyses, increasing copeptin was associated with prevalent diabetes mellitus (P=0.04) and insulin resistance (P<0.001). During 12.6 years of follow-up, 174 subjects (4%) developed new-onset diabetes mellitus. The odds of developing diabetes mellitus increased across increasing quartiles of copeptin, even after additional adjustment for baseline fasting glucose and insulin (adjusted odds ratios, 1.0, 1.37, 1.79, and 2.09; P for trend=0.004). The association with incident diabetes mellitus remained significant in analyses restricted to subjects with fasting whole blood glucose <5.4 mmol/L at baseline (adjusted odds ratios, 1.0, 1.80, 1.92, and 3.48; P=0.001).

Conclusions— Elevated copeptin predicts increased risk for diabetes mellitus independently of established clinical risk factors, including fasting glucose and insulin. These findings could have implications for risk assessment, novel antidiabetic treatments, and metabolic side effects from arginine vasopressin system modulation.

  M. Montagnana , C. Fava , P. M. Nilsson , G. Engstrom , B. Hedblad , G. Lippi , P. Minuz , G. Berglund and O. Melander

Background  To determine if the common Pro12Ala polymorphism (rs1801282) of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARG) gene is associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) or with its individual components in middle-aged Swedish individuals.

Methods  MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Panel III (NCEP/ATP III), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR) criteria in a population-based sample of nearly 5000 subjects participating in the Malmö Diet and Cancer-cardiovascular arm.

Results  Of the subjects included in the analysis, 21.8, 29.4 and 20.4% had MetS according to the NCEP/ATP III, IDF and EGIR (only in subjects without diabetes) definitions, respectively. The Pro12Ala was not associated with MetS or with its individual components. These results were similar when patients with diabetes were excluded. Hypertensive and obese ala-carriers had lower fasting glucose and hypertensive ala-carriers also had lower level triglycerides (P < 0.05).

Conclusions  Our data do not support a major role for the Pro12Ala variant of the PPARG gene in MetS and its individual components. The modest difference in triglyceride and glucose levels, restricted to hypertensive and obese subjects in our cohort, suggests that the polymorphism has a minor effect on glucose and lipid metabolism, particularly in individuals at risk for gluco-metabolic disturbances.

  C. S. Sandstrom , B. Ohlsson , O. Melander , U. Westin , R. Mahadeva and S. Janciauskiene
  Aims  α1-Antitrypsin (AAT) is a serine protease inhibitor which recently has been shown to prevent Type 1 diabetes development, to prolong islet allograft survival and to inhibit pancreatic B-cell apoptosis in vivo. It has also been reported that Type 1 diabetic patients have significantly lower plasma concentrations of AAT, suggesting the potential role of AAT in the pathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes. We have investigated whether plasma AAT levels are altered in Type 2 diabetes.

Methods  The study included patients with Type 2 diabetes (n = 163) and non-diabetic control subjects matched for age, sex and smoking habits (n = 158) derived from the population-based Malmo Diet and Cancer study. Plasma samples were analysed for AAT concentration and phenotype and serum glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein and lipid levels were measured. Glycated haemoglobin was also measured.

Results  In the diabetic group, the women had higher mean plasma AAT levels than men (P < 0.05). The mean plasma AAT levels did not differ between diabetic and control subjects. However, the number of individuals with low AAT levels (< 1.0 mg/ml) was 50% higher in the diabetic group (P < 0.05) and the frequency of AAT deficiency genotypes was 50% higher (NS) in diabetic compared with control subjects. In the group of diabetic patients with AAT < 1 mg/ml, AAT directly correlated with systolic blood pressure (P = 0.048) and inversely correlated with waist-hip ratio (P = 0.031).

Conclusions  Our results provide evidence that deficiency of AAT may be associated with an increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes.

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