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Articles by Nesreen Hassan Hafez
Total Records ( 2 ) for Nesreen Hassan Hafez
  Halla Mohamed Ragab , HebatAllah Mohamed Shaaban , Nabila Abd El Maksoud , Samah Mohamed Radwan , Wafaa Abd Elaziz and Nesreen Hassan Hafez
  Background and Objective: This study examined the correlation between immunohistochemistry (IHC) expression of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in primary breast carcinoma tissue and its concentration in blood samples of the same patients preoperatively and to the other established clinicopathological parameters namely, tumor size, grade, lymph node status, Estrogen Receptor (ER), Progesterone Receptor (PR) status and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2-neu) score. The current study also stressed on whether the ELISA detection is more sensitive and effective in diagnosis of breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Serum concentration of VEGF was measured using Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay (ELISA) in 92 primary breast cancer patients and compared with 25 benign breast disease patients. Also, tissue expression of VEGF was measured by immunohistochemistry. Results: Serum VEGF levels were significantly elevated in patients with malignant breast cancer (p = 0.000). The median serum level in the malignant group was 579 pg mL–1 and in the control group 200 pg mL–1. On the other hand no correlation was found between concentrations of serum VEGF and clinicopathological parameters. A significant association was showed between VEGF expression and lymph node metastasis, tumor size more than 2 cm and Her2-neu status (p<0.0001). No significant association was found between VEGF and patient age, histology, grade, ER and PR status (p>0.05). All positive cases for VEGF with strong positivity (score ++) were grade 2 and 3. Conclusion: The VEGF is overexpressed in breast carcinomas compared to the benign breast disease. Tissue expression of VEGF can be used as a prognostic marker due to the significant association with the large tumor size, lymph node metastasis and positive Her2-neu status. Tissue expression of VEGF can be used as a prognostic marker due to the significant association with the large tumor size, lymph node metastasis and positive Her2-neu status.
  HebatAllah Mohamed Shaaban , Nesreen Hassan Hafez , Halla Mohamed Ragab and Areeg Ibrahim El Abadi
  Background: Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptotic protein family is involved in cell proliferation and apoptotic suppression. Survivin is highly expressed in many cancers and correlated with more aggressive disease. Objective: Assessment of survivin expression in breast carcinoma and its association with clinicopathological factors. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eight breast carcinoma and 22 control benign specimens were used for survivin immunohistochemical assessment. Survivin expression was evaluated according to staining intensity and percentage of positive cells. A numerical score was calculated by multiplying them. Cases with scores of ≥1 were considered positive. Results: Survivin expression was obviously higher in malignant cases compared to the control cases (p<0.001). Among the clinicopathological parameters analyzed, significant correlations were established with the patient’s age (p<0.001), the size of the tumors (p = 0.005) and HER2 status (p = 0.05). Cytoplamic staining was detected in all positive cases, either alone (62.0%) or associated with nuclear staining (38.0%). Cytoplasmic staining only was significantly correlated with good prognostic parameters; small sized tumor, grade II, ER-positive and HER2-negative tumors (p<0.05). All triple negative cases (100%), 90% of luminal B and 72.2% of HER2 subtype showed survivin positivity, while only 48.7% of luminal A was positive. The association between survivin expression and molecular classification was insignificant (p = 0.069). Conclusion: Survivin has a potential role in diagnosis of malignancy. Survivin expression is associated with younger age, large tumor size, HER2-positive tumor and triple negative molecular subtype. Cytoplasmic staining was correlated with good prognostic parameters.
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