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Articles by Neha
Total Records ( 7 ) for Neha
  Amit Kumar Verma , Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty , Neha , Mani Saminathan , Kuldeep Dhama and Shoor Vir Singh
  Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonotic disease transmitted from animals to human and makes significant economic impacts due to high cost of eradication programs, trade restriction and serious consequences regarding public health thereby causing human tuberculosis. Mycobacterium bovis is the main etiological agent of bTB which is an acid fast staining bacterium due to waxy substance (mycolic acid) present in its bacterial cell wall. The bacteria can be transmitted by both aerogenous and enterogenous routes. Disease causes development of miliary tubercular lesions, chronic cough, obstructions of air passages and alimentary tract or blood vessels and enlargement of lymph nodes. A spectrum of Cell-Mediated Immune responses (CMI) predominate infection, projecting the role of macrophages and T-cell populations. In advanced stage, there is increased humoral response. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) have been widely used for the detection of M. tuberculosis complex in clinical samples. Single intradermal test, short thermal test and Stormont tests are the valuable delayed type of hypersensitivity tests. Gamma interferon assay, lymphocyte proliferation assay, Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay (ELISA), multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA), Fluorescent Polarization Assay (FPA), immunochromatographic lateral flow test, single antigen as well as multiplex chemiluminescence assays are the various blood-based laboratory tests. Attenuated bovine-strain of tuberculosis bacterium, known as Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin (BCG) is used as vaccine. The present review addresses important insights into the bovine TB, a complex and multi-species disease, the etiological agent, advances and trends in its diagnosis, vaccine development and treatment options and the public health significance of this important disease which would altogether help devising effective strategies for prevention and control of tuberculosis in cattle as well as in wildlife.
  Neha , Waquar Ahmed , Amit Kumar Verma , Udit Jain and Basanti Bist
  Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease of animals and man causing different reproductive problems like abortion, retention of placenta, repeat breeding, still birth and many more. In this report, authors described an investigation of brucellosis outbreak in an organized dairy farm, Agra, India causing abortions and other reproductive disorders. Blood and environmental samples including feed and water samples were collected in sterile containers. About 80% sera samples collected from aborted animals and 60% sera samples from pregnant and in-contact animals, maintained at the dairy farm contained antibodies against Brucella spp., while all the bulls were found negative for presence of anti-Brucella antibodies. Escherichia coli and Streptococcus spp., isolates were recovered from water samples, while Staphylococcus, Streptococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. could be isolated from feed samples. In the present investigation, high prevalence of anti-Brucella antibodies was found in sera samples of the animals, indicates that they all had an exposure to Brucella spp. which might be the probable reason of abortion storm. Thus, on the basis of our findings, it can be deduced that Brucella might be associated with abortion in dairy animals even without apparent septicaemia or any other manifestations. The presence of anti-Brucella antibodies in sera samples of animals can be used as an indicator of infection in farm animals.
  Lalita Sharma , Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Anu Rahat , Neha and Rajesh Nigam
  The main objective of the present study was to report the prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among bovines used for milk production in Mathura, India. A total of 80 milk samples were collected from clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis from cows (40) and buffalos (40). Milk samples were processed for isolation and identification of S. aureus using standard bacteriological procedures. Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from only 27 samples showing the overall incidence of Staphylococcus aureus in clinical as well as sub clinical mastitis was 33.75%. The incidence of Staphylococcus aureus was higher (50.00%) in clinical mastitis in comparison to that of subclinical mastitis (17.50%). The results revealed that the incidence of Staphylococcus aureus in clinical as well as sub-clinical mastitis was higher in cattle in comparison to buffaloes. Drug sensitivity revealed the 100% resistance against penicillins followed by vancomycin (88.89%), nalidixic acid (77.78%), cefixime, methicillin, novobiocin (66.67% each), amoxiclav, colistin, pipemidic acid (55.56% each), ofloxacin, streptomycin, sulphamethizole (44.44% each), ampicillin/sulbactam, cefalexin, cefazolin, cefoperazone, enrofloxacin, floxidin, meropenem (33.33% each), cefuroxim, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, gentamicin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, tetracycline (22.22% each). Eighteen isolates were found to be methicillin-resistant, while the remaining (09) were methicillin-susceptible. Similarly, twenty four S. aureus isolates were intermediate to vancomycin while three were vancomycin susceptible and no isolate was resistant to vancomycin. Thus, the findings are useful for formulating specific control programs for bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus in this region.
  Amit Kumar Jaiswal , Vikrant Sudan , Neha and Amit Kumar Verma
  Trypanosomiasis is a haemoprotozoan disease entity caused by various members of Trypanosoma spp. affecting different species of domestic and wild animals like horses, mule, donkey, camel, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goat, dogs, pig, elephant, deer, foxes, tiger and jackals with chief clinical signs of high intermittent fever, anaemia, loss of weight, edema of dependent parts, nervous symptoms, abortion and is responsible for major production losses. It can be transmitted through the biting flies wherein, the parasite may undergo biological or mechanical transmission. Various diagnostic methods from traditional to molecular are available for its diagnosis viz., microscopic examination, DNA detection by PCR, Card Agglutination Test and ELISA. The present review addresses important insights into trypanosomiasis, the etiological agent, advances and trends in its diagnosis, treatment aspects, prevention and control measures; which would help in limiting its prevalence in animals.
  Amit Kumar Verma , Mani Saminathan , Neha , Ruchi Tiwari , Kuldeep Dhama and Shoor Vir Singh
  Glanders is a contagious and highly fatal zoonotic disease affecting horses, donkeys and mules as well as man leading to formation of nodules and ulcerations in the upper respiratory tract and lungs. This is a notifiable disease under Glanders and Farcy Act, 1899. The disease is caused by Burkholderia mallei, a gram negative bacteria, non-spore forming, non-motile rod bacterium and is a facultative intracellular pathogen. The disease has been eradicated from many countries by testing and destruction diseased horses and restriction of import of animals. However, the disease is endemic in Africa, Asia, Mongolia, Middle East, Central and South America. In India, major glanders outbreaks were reported between 1976 to 1982 from different parts of the country. Later, sporadic cases were reported in 1988, 1990 and 1998. India was remained free of glanders for 8 years until recent re-emerging outbreaks started from 2006 to 2011. The occurrence of the disease leads to international trade restrictions. Glanders is primarily a disease of equines which causes chronic disease in horses and acute disease in donkeys and mules. Human is accidental host and the disease usually results from occupational exposure. Though the organism is susceptible to various antibiotics in vitro treatment is difficult and needs longer course with combination of antibiotics upon early diagnosis. It can be used as a biological weapon and has been classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as a category B bio-threat agent and at present no vaccine is available for this bacterium either in humans or animals. This review describes this important disease covering its etiology, epidemiology, transmission, clinical signs, post-mortem lesions, public health significance, diagnosis, treatment and prevention and control strategies to be adapted to combat this deadly zoonotic pathogen.
  A.K. Singh , A.K. Verma , Neha , Ruchi Tiwari , K. Karthik , Kuldeep Dhama and S.V. Singh
  By 2050 to feed the estimated human population of around 9 billion, there is requirement of 50% increase the food production, which can only be fulfilled by clean, healthy and sustainable food animal production. Livestock industry is facing considerable economic losses due to infectious diseases. So an effective control strategy is need of today to control these infectious diseases and contribute in augmentation of livestock production. Parasitic diseases have a major impact on livestock production, reproduction and hence economy. Protozoan parasites are major causes of human and animal disease causing extensive morbidity and mortality, particularly parasitic disease in tropical and sub-tropical climatic regions. Many protozoal parasitic diseases are zoonotic. Limiting the impact of parasitism in both man and livestock relies almost exclusively on the use of antiparasitic drugs. Development of resistance towards chemotherapeutic agents has forced the scientist to discover some alternative for control of parasitic diseases. Recent advances in immunology and biotechnology have sensitized the scientists or researchers to develop the newer and safer vaccines for control of parasitic diseases. This review is intended to provide state-of-art information to the reader with an overview on the trends, advances and perspectives in vaccines and vaccinology against important parasitic diseases of livestock and poultry viz., coccidiosis, anaplasmosis, giardiosis, babesiosis, Neospora infection, toxoplasmosis, theleriosis, sarcocyst infestation, leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis and trichomoniasis, which altogether play crucial role in the prevention of protozoan parasitic diseases of animals.
  B. Muruganatham , Sahil Babel and Neha
  Web services are gaining importance and are often used as a standard approach for integrating diverse miscellaneous services often distributed over the network. Hence, it necessitates attaining high levels of reliability and availability without being affected by any service, network or infrastructure failures. To accomplish this, we propose an efficient mechanism which will narrow the plausibility of fault detection by dynamic web service selection among similar services. The Quality-of-Service (QoS) can have an important effect on web service composition service reliability. In this study, we perceive the rationale for the failure of the web services and resolve it by considering the QoS attributes like response time, execution time, etc. The proposed modeling approach indicates a possible reduction in the failure probability as well as a significant improvement in the execution duration of the complex web services composition. This has been proved through the results achieved with an experimental setup.
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