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Articles by N.C. Ihediohanma
Total Records ( 6 ) for N.C. Ihediohanma
  C.C. Ogueke , C.I. Owuamanam , N.C. Ihediohanma and J.O. Iwouno
  Some bacteria have been perceived to promote good health of the host and thus are beneficial to host health. These have been called probiotics. Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria have been identified as probiotics. These bacteria when ingested change the composition of the intestinal microflora. Various beneficial effects are attributable to the consumption of these bacteria. These include prevention of diarrhea, immune system stimulation and prevention of colon cancer. However, their presence in the gut may be transient thus requiring a permanent implantation and colonization. Thus the concept of prebiotics. Prebiotics are non digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon and thus improve host health. Prebiotics selectively stimulate the growth of probiotics resident in the gut especially bifidobacteria through the production of β-fructosidase, therefore changing the colonic microflora to a healthier composition. Prebiotics are non digestible oligosaccharides especially fructooligosaccharides. Some beneficial effects attributed to consumption of prebiotics include modulation of lipid metabolism through fermentation and increasing the absorption of minerals such as Ca and Mg from the colon. However, research data available show that the growth of lactobacilli is not selectively stimulated by the prebiotics. There is therefore need to conduct more research to determine the role of bacteriocins they produce in their ability to colonize the gut.
  E.C. Nwanekezi , C.I. Owuamanam , N.C. Ihediohanma and J.O. Iwouno
  The functional, particle size distribution and sorption kinetics of cocoyam cormels were investigated to reveal their suitability in food systems and storage stability. Four cultivars of cocoyam cormel were harvested processed into flour and the resultant flours investigated for the functional, particle size distribution and sorption isotherm. The Ede ofe of the Colocasia spp. had highest crude protein content (9.72%), followed by Ede ocha, Xanthosoma spp, (8.13%) while Ede cocoindia had the least, 7.93%. These values are higher than are obtainable in other root crops such as yam or cassava. Ede uhie had proportional distribution than the rest of the cultivers. Ede uhie had the highest value for viscosity, 0.246cp while Ede cocoindia had the least, 0.089 cp. Ede cocoindia had the highest water absorption capacity, 2.410g/g, followed by Ede ofe, 2.195 g/g while Ede uhie scored the least, 2.082 g/g. The bulk density of Ede ofe was highest, 0.95 g/cm3 while Ede uhie had the least score, 0.76 g/cm3. The sorption isotherm study revealed that relative humidity in the neighborhoods of 65-70% would be ideal for storage of the flours in moisture tight package materials. Monolayer values ranged from 0.0367-0.0787 gH2O/g solid which suggest better storage stability of the flour when store at ambient temperature, 30oC. Going by the data obtained cormel flours from the Xanthosoma species can be used as a composite in bread making while their Colocasia counterparts would perform better in emulsion food system.
  C.I. Owuamanam , J.O. Iwouno , N.C. Ihediohanma and L.I. Barber
  The effects of control pH, temperature and fermentation time on the cyanide reduction, functional and sensory properties of gari were investigated. Freshly harvested cassava roots (local variety) were peeled, washed and grated into a mash. The meal was divided into five equal portions and mixed thoroughly with already prepared buffer solutions from citric acid, sodium orthophosphate, -analytical grade (10% by weight buffer and kept in stainless containers to ferment at room temperature (30oC). Samples were withdrawn at intervals of 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 h, dewatered, sifted and toasted into gari and packaged in cellophane bags. The process was again carried out at 35 and 40oC. The product gari was subjected to functional analysis (swelling index, pH, titrable acidity, water absorption capacity and residual cyanide) and sensory evaluation (appearance, taste and general acceptability) for the uncooked gari. The results obtained show that the buffer treated samples had high pH than the control sample. The highest mean pH was recorded for the BS = 8.0, (7.19), followed by BS = 7.0 (6.55) and BS = 6.0 (5.97), while the control had the lowest 4.5. The highest Swelling Index (SI) (17.45 ml/ml) was obtained for BS = 5.0 and closely followed by BS = 6.0 (17.14 ml/ml) while BS = 8.0 recorded the least 16.91 ml/ml. The buffer at pH 7.0 reduced the cyanide content to 7.69 mg HCN/kg, which is lower than the safe level of 10 mg HCN/kg. Moreover the gari from BF = 5.0 (5.4) and BF = 6.0 were the preferred in terms of general acceptability while the gari from the control BF = 0.0 (4.8) was rated the least. The buffer treated samples also performed better than the control in bulk density and general acceptability as rated by the panelists. Therefore controlling the process variables (pH, temperature and fermentation time) while fermenting cassava mash for gari production is sure way to enhance product quality and safety.
  N.C. Ihediohanma
  Three Garri samples (A, B, C) from the same cassava specie (Manihot utillsima) produced at different fermentation time (24, 48 and 72 h) were evaluated for Glycemic Indices (G.I). Oral glucose-D was used as standard food. Proximate analysis including the dietary fibre and glycemic carbohydrate were determined using standard methods. Result showed that dietary fibre decreased with length of fermentation giving values as 15.75, 10.85 and 7.60 for 24, 48 and 72 h respectively. Glycemic carbohydrate increased with length of fermentation giving values as 63.57, 69.11 and 73.05 for 24, 48 and 72 h respectively. Fermentation time affected the glycemic indices of the foods. The G.I values increased from 62, 67 and 73 for 24, 48 and 72 h respectively. Results showed that sample A and B were intermediate GI foods while sample C was a high GI food. The mean glycemic responses of the samples showed significant difference (p>0.05). The co-efficient of variation for the standard food was 26%.
  N.C. Ihediohanma , N.C. Onuegbu , A.I. Peter-Ikechukwu and N.C. Ojimba
  The Glycemic Indices (GI) of three yam cultivars commonly consumed in Nigeria were studied. The yam cultivars were white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir), water yam (Dioscorea alata) and three-leaved yam (Dioscorea domentroum). Five normal (healthy) volunteers participated in the study. GI was determined using a standard method with glucose as the reference food. Fifty (50) gram available carbohydrate portions of the yam cultivars were analyzed for proximate composition and dietary fiber by enzymatic-gravimetric method. The mean IAUCs (glycemic responses) for the test foods and glucose ranged from 863.5-3642.84 and were significantly different. Expectedly, glucose had the highest glycemic response of 3642.84. The mean IAUC for white yam, water yam and three-leaved yam were 2386.50, 863.50 and 1929.08 respectively. The GI of white yam (67) and three-leaved yam (56) were significantly higher than that of water yam (24). It was concluded that white yam and three-leaved yam are intermediate or medium glycemic food, whereas water yam is a low GI food.
  A.I. Peter- Ikechukwu , N.C. Ihediohanma , E.N. Bede , J.C. Ibeabuchi and U.O. Abaleke
  The effects of the physical characteristics of polyethylene packaging materials on the storage stability (keeping quality) of preservative-free plantain chips at ambient temperature (30-37°C) were studied. Physical characteristics and proximate composition of the raw unripe horn plantain were determined to assess the suitability of the plantain in chips making and yield. The plantains were sliced to 2 mm thickness, blanched with hot water at 60°C, drained and salted to taste. The slices were fried to chips with an unbranded vegetable oil (commonly used by local producers) at 160-170°C for 3-5 min, drained, cooled and packaged in five different polyethylene bags labeled "A to E", sealed, respectively and kept on the shelve. Proximate analysis, microbial and sensory evaluations were carried out on the chips at intervals of two weeks for five weeks. Results showed that polyethylene bag “C" (6.0 μm thick, hazy and of high density) retained the sensory attributes, nutrient composition and had lower total viable, mould and yeast counts, followed by polyethylene "A" (4 μm thick, very transparent and of low density) while "E" (1.1 μm, very transparent and low density) was the least in all the parameters analyzed.
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