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Articles by N. Demirel
Total Records ( 16 ) for N. Demirel
  N. Demirel and F. Cabuk
  The two spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most important pests on the cotton crop in Hatay region of Turkey. A two-year study was conducted between 2006 and 2007 to evaluate the population density of TSSM on cotton fields planted by dirt and asphalt roads. In 2006, the cotton plants nearby dirt roads had 1.72, 1.75, 4.04 and 2.65 times higher TSSM population than the cotton plants nearby asphalt roads in the four sampling dates, respectively. In 2007, the cotton plants nearby dirt roads had 5.54 and 10.64 times higher TSSM population than cotton plants nearby asphalt roads in two sampling dates, respectively. Consequently, the population densities of the TSSM were 1.79 and 13.86 times higher on the cotton plants nearby dirt roads than cotton plants nearby asphalt roads in 2006 and 2007, respectively. It is thought, the dusty conditions may bring about increasing population of TSSM on cotton plants.
  N. Demirel and W. Cranshaw
  A 2-year study was conducted to evaluate relative effect of color mulches to potato/tomato psyllid, Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc.) (Homoptera: Psyllidae), on tomato plant in Fort Collins, Colorado (USA). In the first year, an aluminum mulch and white plastic mulch resulted in significant reduction on potato/tomato psyllids on tomatoes (c.v. ‘Celebrity’) comparing with the black plastic mulch and untreated check. The white plastic mulches continued to suppress psyllids in the second evaluation. In the second year, an aluminum mulch significantly decreased number of psyllid on tomato plants (c.v. ‘Roma’) comparing with other treatments (straw, black plastic, bare ground control). In conclusion, the aluminum and white plastic mulch can be used as an alternative cultural control to the chemical control for controlling potato/tomato psyllid in home garden tomato plants in Colorado.
  N. Demirel and W. Cranshaw
  The migratory grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), is one of the most important grasshoppers in western North America rangelands in Fort Collins, CO (USA). The laboratory bioassay trials were conducted to determine the specific effect of microbial insecticides and repellents for control of migratory grasshopper in Fort Collins, Colorado. In an initial trial, both Beauveria bassiana and spinosad treated foliage produced significant mortality to grasshoppers at 120 h post-exposure, with some more rapid mortality within 24 h when spinosad was used at a higher rate. Significant mortality from B. bassiana was first observed after 72 h, with the high rate (1 lb/100 gal concentration). In a second trial treatment with Bioneem, Trilogy (neem oil), and Garlic Barrier were also included all treatments caused significant mortality at 96 h, with significantly most mortality with B. bassiana and spinosad. At 192 h, B. bassiana and spinosad produced 100% mortality. In conclusion, Beauveria bassiana and Spinosad were effective microbial insecticide for reducing population density of migratory grasshopper in both laboratory bioassays trials. In addition, Bioneem had significant repellent effects on migratory grasshoppers.
  N. Demirel
  The thrips species, Thrips tabaci Lindeman and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pengande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), are the most common pests on agricultural crops in Colorado. The yellow cup baited with crushed freeze-dried canola pod extract caught significantly higher numbers of thrips species than baited with ground mustard seed in the first trial. The blue cup baited with mustard oil caught the highest number of thrips species at second trial. In addition, blue cup baited with canola and mustard oil caught three and four times much higher numbers of thrips species than yellow cup baited with raw canola and mustard oil in third trial. This study also appears to be the first showing that secondary host plant compound can increase captures of thrips species at the organic farm.
  N. Demirel and W. Cranshaw
  The pale legume bug (PLB), Lygus elisus (Van Duzee), is one of the most important pests on canola plant in Colorado. A two-year study at early flower and pod stages of spring canola was conducted to evaluate plant yield responses for PLB in 2001-2002. Artificial infesting of number of PLB per head at early flower stages resulted in high yield losses than infestations at early pod stages in both years. In 2001, averaged yield losses for seven canola cultivars at early flower stages were 66, 63 and 72% and for five canola cultivars were 54, 66 and 63% with infested at 2, 8 and 16 PLB per head, respectively, compared to the non-infested control. However, such significant effects on yield following PLB infestation at early flowering were not repeated at both trials in 2002. In 2001, averaged yield losses for seven canola cultivars at early pod stages were 22, 34 and 50% with infested at 2, 8 and 16 PLB per head and for five canola cultivars was 49% with infested 16 PLB per head. In addition, significant yield losses at early pod stages occurred on cultivar 46A65 when infested at the highest level at second trials in 2002. The comparisons of 10% yield loss occurred with infestations of 3.1-5.6 PLB per head (avg. 3.7) at early flowering stage and 3.4-19.0 PLB per head (avg. 9.6) at early pod stage infestations in both years. In conclusion, the proposal of economic injury levels for infested different number of PLB might be changed between 3.1-5.6 PLB per head at early flower stages and 3.4-19.0 PLB per head at early pod stages.
  N. Demirel and F. Cabuk
  The two spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is one of the most important pests on cotton crops in Amik plain of Turkey. The sampling were taken from forty-eight an irrigated cotton crop fields to describe affectability of dusty condition for the TSSM` population density. The population densities of two spotted spider mite were 1.72, 1.75, 4.39 and 2.65 times higher on cotton nearby soil road than asphalt road. Therefore, the dusty conditions can bring about increasing population of TSSM on cotton plants. Due to the dusty conditions, their beneficial insects were not affected on their population density. The decreasing of dusty condition can be reduced population density of TSSM and increase affectability of their beneficial insects.
  N. Demirel and A.E. Yildirim
  The onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), leafhoppers, Empoasca decipiens Paoli (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) are significant common pests on cotton crops in Turkey. A two-year study was conducted to evaluate the relative attraction of thrips and leafhopper species to various color traps in the cotton growing areas of Hatay province. In 2006, two trials consisting of yellow, orange, blue, red, white and green color traps were conducted in Kirikhan district. In 2007, the first trial containing blue, orange, red and yellow color traps was conducted in Kirikhan district. The second trial including blue, white, yellow and green color traps was conducted in Reyhanli district. The yellow sticky color traps were significantly attractive for thrips species in 2006, but not in 2007. In 2007, the blue sticky color traps were significantly attractive for species in both trials. On the other hand, in the second trial in 2007, the white sticky color traps were significantly attractive for thrips species. The green and red color traps were not attractive for thrips species. The yellow sticky color traps were significantly attractive for leafhoppers species in 2006-2007. The orange sticky color traps were the second attractive for leafhoppers species in 2006 and 2007. The green sticky color traps at the last trial were significantly attractive for leafhoppers species in 2007, while they were not attractive previous three trials. The white, blue and red sticky color traps were not attractive for them in both years. In conclusion, the yellow, blue and white sticky color traps for thrips species and the yellow and orange sticky color traps for leafhoppers species are strongly suggested for monitoring their population densities in cotton crops.
  N. Demirel
  The true bugs are one of the most economically important insect pests in agro ecosystems. Several different pheromones for true bugs have been reported, including sex, attractant, aggregation and alarm pheromones. The term sex pheromone refers to a compound liberated by a female, with the dual purpose of both attracting the male from a distance. Sex pheromone of the hemiptera are largely produced by males. The sex attractant pheromones are typically volatile chemicals produced by either male or female members of species for successful courtship and mating. The aggregations pheromones are produced by either one or both sexes and serve to attract other individuals for feeding, mating and protection. Moreover, the alarm pheromones warn members of a species of impending danger and those are commonly easily disturbed and readily emit their offensive odor. In conclusion, important pheromones of the true bugs can be classified four different categories; sex, attractant, aggregation and alarm pheromones. The knowing them can be important key to monitor time of emergence of pest population, pest density, detection new pest species, decision of successful control program and using them as bait with insecitide trial.
  N. Demirel
  A two-year study was conducted to evaluate toxicological responses of false chinch bug (FCB), Nysius raphanus (Howard), to selected insecticides in the laboratory bioassays. A chlorpyrifos resulted in the lowest LC50 and highest mortality in both years. Diazinon showed the second lowest LC50 in first year, but not the following year. A cyfluthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin resulted in moderate effectively insecticides. However, a spinosad resulted in the highest LC50 and lowest mortality in the first year. Permethrin showed the lower LC50 and higher mortality than lambda-cyhalothrin and esfenvalerate in the following year. A diazinon and endosulfan also resulted in significant low LC50 and significant mortality on FCB. The highest LC50 and lowest mortality observed with imidacloprid.
  N. Demirel and W. Cranshaw
  A two-year study was conducted to evaluate the relationship of plant yield responses to artificial infestations of the Pale Legume Bug (PLB) and False Chinch Bug (FCB) on spring canola in Colorado, USA. Yield losses with both insect species were greater at early flower stages infestations than at early pod stages infestations. A significant yield reductions were caused by 8 PLB/head at early flower stages and 16 PLB/head both stages of IMC204 and 16 PLB/ head at early flower stages of IMC205. Significant yield losses in 2001 were resulted in 40 FCB/head at early pod stages of IMC204. However, yield losses in 2002 were significantly higher at early flower stages than early pod stages. A 20 and 40 FCB/head resulted in 72 and 85% yield losses comparing with 0FCB/head on the cultivar IMC204. In addition, the cultivar IMC205 had 79% yield losses by 40 FCB/head. In conclusion, the spring canola yield responses varied among PLB and FCB/head and their stages.
  N. Demirel
  In the laboratory bioassays, a two-year study was conducted to evaluate mortality of False Chinch Bug (FCB), Nysius raphanus (Howard) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae), to selected insecticides. All treatments caused significantly FCB mortality in both years. In the first year, diazinon and chlorpyrifos were significantly more effective insecticides than other insecticides. A thiamethoxam and spinosad were the least effective insecticides. In the second year, permethrin, thiamethoxam, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos were the most effects insecticides for causing on FCB mortality at 24 h, while an esfenvalerate, lambda-cyhalothrin and imidacloprid were less effective insecticides.
  N. Demirel
  The Medfly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important fruit fly pests in the world. Several different behavior patterns have been reported including courtship behavior, mating behavior, oviposition behavior, feeding behavior and resting behavior. Courtship behavior described for wild males usually followed a predictable sequence of: male calling → females approach → male wing vibrating → female standing → male wing fanning → copulation. In contrast, these transitions were generally absent in the courtship of mass-reared males. Mating behavior can be classified as two different tactics, lekking and fruit guarding by males. Lekking, defined as participating in a male aggregation where at least one male is emitting pheromone from the anal gland. Fruit guarding by males is the alternative-mating tactic in which a male is stationed on a host and accosts females who alight on it to oviposit. In addition, some synthetic compounds, e.g., trimedlure, can affect mating behavior of medfly males. In the ultimate stage of oviposition behavior, the Medfly lays eggs underneath the skin of host fruit. This describes as a blanket term covering pre-and post-oviposition behavior, which may change based on host and host plant variety or the availability of the host plants containing resources such as fruit and protein food stimuli. Feeding behavior of the adult medflies includes acquiring carbohydrates, primarily from feeding on the juices of ripe fruit and honeydew, protein from bird feces and decomposing fruit, whereas the immature stages develop better on diets containing higher concentrations of glucose and sucrose than containing high starch concentration or maltose. Resting behavior patterns differed between males and females, location on the host plant and temperature. Understanding these can be very important to its control on crops. Research concerning Medfly behavior could improve methods to control this important pest.
  N. Demirel and W. Cranshaw
  A three-year survey was conducted to evaluate population density of False Chinch Bug (FCB), Nysius raphanus (Howard) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) and their movement on cultivated crops and non-cultivated habitats throughout the growing season in Colorado (USA). The first population of the FCB appeared winter mustard such as Flixweed, Descurainia spp., in Larimer and western weld County in Colorado. Within a wide host range, they moved from alfalfa after cutting to adjacent crops, i.e. canola and caused significant injury during early flower and pod stages. They also moved to canola from wild mustards, flixweed, D. sophia L. and tansy mustard, D. pinnata (Walt.), which were present in both non-cultivated areas and cultivated crops. Furthermore, the dry weather condition might be increased the activity and outbreak of FCB on the cultivated crops and non-cultivated habitats, whereas the heavy rain was decreased the population density of FCB. Knowing the population density of FCB and their movement on cultivated crops and non-cultivated habitats is important to predict their injury to canola plants and for developing new control strategies.
  N. Demirel and W. Cranshaw
  All trials were conducted in 2000, 2001 and 2002 with different canola (Brassica napus L.) and mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) plants to evaluate the relative host plant preferences of Western Black Flea Beetle (WBFB) Phyllotreta pusilla Horn (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in greenhouse and field conditions in Colorado (USA). The spring mustard (ZEM1) and winter mustard (Debut) were significantly attractive and more susceptible for the WBFB. However, the spring mustard (W1-23) was less susceptibility to WBFB and suggests a possible source of reduced susceptibility in oilseed mustards. Most of currently registered varieties of canola were susceptible to WBFB feeding. The spring canola (CO1) was significantly more attractive and susceptible for the WBFB. In addition, spring canola (Helios) sustained relatively high plant injury with WBFB and plant had low population density and suggesting in tolerance to WBFB injury.
  N. Demirel and W. Cranshaw
  A three-year survey was conducted to evaluate population density and movement of Lygus species on cultivated crops and non-cultivated habitats throughout the growing season in Colorado. Three Lygus species, L. elisus, L. hesperus, L. lineolaris, were commonly found in cultivated crops and non-cultivated habitats based on concurrent adult collections in Colorado. Lygus species were found from early April to late in August, having multiple generations in each year in Colorado. Lygus species had wide host range in Colorado. Alfalfa was a significant host plant for Lygus species. However, after cutting alfalfa, Lygus species moved to adjacent crops, i.e. canola and caused significant injury during early flower and pod stages. The wild mustards, flixweed, D. sophia L. and tansy mustard, D. pinnata (Walt.), were significantly important host plants in non-cultivated areas and within cultivated crops. Removing wild mustard in sampling area resulted in the movement of Lygus species to canola crop. In conclusion, it might be important to know population density of Lygus species and their movement on cultivated crops and non-cultivated habitats to predict their injury to canola plants to develop control strategies.
  N. Demirel and W. Cranshaw
  The Western Black Flea Beetle (WBFB), Phyllotreta pusilla Horn (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera), is one of the most significant pests on the spring canola in Colorado (USA). Different color traps were tested to learn of attraction to WBFB. Yellow, neon yellow, neon green and neon orange sticky color traps were the most attractive for WBFB. However, the blue and silver sticky color traps were less attractive to WBFB.
 
 
 
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