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Articles by Muladno
Total Records ( 7 ) for Muladno
  Niken Ulupi , Muladno , Cece Sumantri and I. Wayan Teguh Wibawan
  Eggs of kampung chicken play an important role as substance in ‘jamu preparation’ in Indonesia, mostly provided and consumed without cooking. Salmonella free eggs become significant in producing the safe ‘jamu preparation’ and such eggs might be produced by chickens which have high resistancy to this bacteria. One of excellent markers showing resistance of chicken against Salmonella is an active Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) gene. TLR4 is a phagocytes cell surface receptor that plays a role to recognize lipopolysaccaride (LPS) of gram negative bacteria including Salmonella enteritidis. It is transcribed by TLR4 gene and conserved in the activation of the non-specific immune system. The aim of the research was to prove how kampung chicken resistant against natural infection of S. enteritidis, using TLR4 gene as marker. TLR4 gene was genotyped in 50 kampung chickens with PCR-RFLP. Then biological assays of resistance indicator were measured. The genotyping result on exon 2 (220 bp in size) identified 3 genotypes of TLR4 gene in kampung chicken: AA, AG and GG. Concentration of leucocytes and their differentiation were not significantly different in AG and GG genotype. The value of it from AA genotype was similar to them. There was no S. enteritidis finding in blood and eggs produced by AA, AG, GG chickens. Specific IgY to S. enteritidis was positively found in kampung chickens serum and egg yolk. Concentration of specific IgY in kampung chicken egg yolk was found very high. The study postulated that most likely kampung chicken resistant to S. enteritidis natural infection.
  Muhammad Amrullah Pagala , Muladno , Cece Sumantri and Sri Murtini
  Tolaki chicken is a kind of Indonesian local chickens, that belong to the ability of anti viral responses. This ability is controlled by the present of antiviral Mx (myxovirus resistance) gene. The Mx gene codes for a protein with antiviral activity. The objective of the study was to prove the tolaki chicken Mx gene genotype is associated with antiviral and production traits. Mx/Hpy 81 gene was genotyped in 103 tolaki chickens with PCR-RFLP. A total of 30 chickens were challenged with ND gen VIIb virus (104 CLD50)/chicken. PCR was used to amplify genomic DNA for Mx gene (299 bp). The amplimer was cut by Hpy 81 produce three genotypes: AA, AG and GG and two alleles: A allele (299 bp) and G allele (200 bp and 99 bp). Frequency of A allele (0.74) was higher than G allele (0.26). The all parameters of production traits in challenge test group were not significantly different in AA, AG and GG genotypes. The daily weight gain, feed intake and FCR were significantly different in AA, AG and GG genotypes of chickens control group. The parameters of antiviral traits showed that vitality of AA (50%) and AG (50%) of chickens were better then GG (10%) in challenge group. The vitality of AA (100%) and AG (100%) were better GG (33.33%) in control group. The study postulated that Mx gene genotype could be associated with production and antiviral traits in tolaki chicken. AA and AG genotype are more resistant and show better production than GG genotype.
  N. Ulupi , Muladno , C. Sumantri and I.W.T. Wibawan
  Kampung chicken eggs play an important role as substance in 'jamu preparation' in Indonesia, mostly provided and consumed without cooking. Salmonella free eggs become significant in producing the safe 'jamu preparation' and such eggs might be produced by chickens which have high resistance to this bacteria. One of excellent markers showing resistance of chicken against Salmonella is an active Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) gene. TLR4 is a phagocytes cell surface receptor that plays a role to recognize lipopolysaccharide of gram negative bacteria including Salmonella enteritidis. It is transcribed by TLR4 gene and conserved in the activation of the non-specific immune system. The aim of the research is to prove resistance of Kampung chicken when was challenged with S. enteritidis, using TLR4 gene as marker. TLR4 gene was genotyped in 50 Kampung chickens with PCR-RFLP. Then all the Kampung chickens were challenged with S. enteritidis (ID50:5×105 CFU/mL). Their expression on resistance against S. enteritidis as well as biological and molecular assays were measured. The genotyping result identified 3 genotypes of TLR4 gene: AA, AG and GG. All parameters including expression of TLR4 gene, concentration of leucocytes, differentiation of leucocytes, macrophages activity and capacity were not significantly different in AG and GG genotypes. There was no S. enteritidis finding in blood and eggs produced by AA, AG and GG chickens. There was found IgY specific to S. enteritidis in eggs yolk with very high concentration (2.94-3.89 mg/mL). The study proved that Kampung chicken resistant to S. enteritidis infection in all condition.
  Nova Rugayah , Muladno , Henny Nuraini and Salundik
  Animal bone waste in Indonesia is quite high due to the high consumption of chicken, beef and pork. Bone charcoal is charcoal made from animal bones which can be utilized for reducing levels of fluoride (F) in groundwater. This study is aimed to assess the utilization of chicken bones into charcoal to reduce levels of fluoride (defluoridation) groundwater in Indonesia. Materials used in this study are chicken bones as raw materials for bone charcoal. The measured variables were (1) The quality of chicken bone charcoal, (2) Adsorption capacity of the bone charcoal to Fluoride in groundwater. The results showed that chicken bone charcoal consists of O2, Ca, P, C, Na, Mg and Al. Chicken bone charcoal has a quite high of the adsorption capacity as much as 67%. The more chicken bone charcoal is added to the higher percentage of Fluoride tends to increase the adsorption capacity up to 12 h. Therefore, chicken bone waste has a high potency to be processed become chicken bone charcoal for defluoridation of ground water.
  Maria Ulfah , Dyah Perwitasari , Jakaria , Muladno and Achmad Farajallah
  Assessing the molecular characteristic of chickens is the powerful method to differentiate chicken breeds. This study analyses the matrilineal evolution of the Indonesian local chickens based on mitochondrial DNA D-loop region to reveal their genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships. The estimated genetic diversity of Indonesian local chickens ranged from 0.00171 to 0.01800. Six (6) groups from 67 D-loop haplotypes of Indonesian chickens are observed in this study. The Indonesian local chickens can be differentiated from Saudi Arabian, ornamental and commercial line chickens. However, maintaining genetic variation of certain chicken population will be useful to conserve local genes for future utilization.
  Aris Winaya , Muladno and Asep Saefuddin
  We used microsatellite DNA marker of the Y-chromosome to know the polymorphism of this marker on Indonesian native cattle populations because the Y-chromosome marker was required as an analog line male as well as a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) line in female. The cattle used in this study were 25 heads unrelated male animal for each breed and total samples were 175 heads for seven breeds. The highest number of alleles was two alleles were found in all of Y-microsatellite locus whereas the average number of alleles in all populations (the seven breeds of cattle) was 1.1 and the overall number of alleles was quite low (1-2 alleles). The values of heterozygosity for seven breeds were 0 up to 53%. The highest heterozygosity (h) value of microsatellitte loci was found on the INRA 062 (53%) locus in the Pesisir cattle (West Sumatra local cattle) population. While, the PIC values for all of microsatellites between 0.10-0.29 and the highest value was found on Madura cattle.
  R. Priyanto , H. Nuraini , Muladno , M. Ismail and H. Wijayanto
  Background and Objectives: Local cattle and buffalo slaughtered in public abattoirs vary widely in body fatness and live weight. The study was aimed to characterise carcass and non-carcass parameters of local cattle and buffalo differing in breed, sex and body fatness score using a carcass dressing procedure based on the national standard carcass definition. Methodology: A total of 291 cattle and buffalo were slaughtered at 20 public abattoirs from ten provinces of Indonesia. The slaughtered animals were classified according to breed (Bali, Madura, PO, local crossbred cattle, PFH and buffalo), body fatness score (very thin, thin, medium, fat and very fat) and sex (male and female). Results: The results indicated that the local cattle and buffalo slaughtered at public abattoirs were dominated by local crossbred cattle (59%), followed by Bali cattle (14%), PFH cattle (10%), PO cattle (8%), Madura cattle (7%) and swamp buffalo (2%). The animals were mainly in medium (49%) and poor (36%) conditions, while only 15% of the animals were in fat condition. Variations due to breed, age, sex and body fatness score were observed in slaughter weight, carcass and non-carcass characteristics. Conclusion: Overall, the majority of local cattle and buffalo of various breeds, ages and sexes slaughtered at public abattoirs in Indonesia had low to medium carcass productivity, which could be improved by increasing their body fatness score.
 
 
 
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