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Articles by Muhammad Sarwar
Total Records ( 23 ) for Muhammad Sarwar
  Muhammad Sarwar , Idress Hamad Attitalla and Mohammad Abdollahi
  There is a growing focus on the importance of medicinal plants and traditional health systems in solving the health care problems of the world. Use of plants as a source of medicine has come to new developing world from ancient practices. In this study, the most recent studies published in experimental advances in medicinal plants during January 2010 to April 2011 have been reviewed to indicate the extent of advances using ASCI database. Most of studies addressed antioxidant effects of medicinal plants followed by antimicrobial, anti-diabetic anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antifungal and anticancer properties. Fabaceae was found to be the most abundantly studied family with a total of eleven studied plants, followed by Lamiaceae, Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Asteraceae, Apocynaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Rubiaceae, Zingiberaceae, Apiaceae, Compositae, Anarcadiaceae, Acanthaceae, Asciepiadaceae and Rutaceae. In spite of the fact that tremendous efforts were done by the researchers by providing an alternate with minimum side effects, easy accessibility and excellent compatibility, future clinical trials and standardization are still desired as an important steps in drug discovery.
  Muhammad Sarwar and Mohammad Abdollahi
  International Journal of Pharmacology was launched by Asian Network for Scientific Information (ANSInet) with the objectives to provide a vibrant and unique forum to the pharmacologists around the world to present outstanding researches in the field. In this editorial paper, the progress, editorial decisions and contribution of scientists from different countries in International Journal of Pharmacology during the year 2010 have been summarized. This paper also highlights the editorial efforts to make the journal more visible and reviewer’s efforts to improve the quality of the contents to meet high standards of scientific publications.
  Muhammad Sarwar
  Not Available
  Muhammad Sarwar
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  Muhammad Sarwar
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  Muhammad Nouman Sohail , Asia Karim , Muhammad Sarwar and Abobaker M. Alhasin
  Various diseases are common in Pakistani population and major reason for their prevalence is the lack of modern health facilities. Current review was aimed to find the potential medicinal uses of Allium cepa, which is a culinary herb. A number of studies have proven its potential use against human pathogenic organisms. Its extract and powder was found to have inhibitory activity against tumor cells. Moreover scientifically proven hypoglycemic, cardioprotective and hypolipidemic activities suggest its potential use in diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. It is also useful to reduce the risk of bone injuries especially in females. Onion is a rich source of flavonoids, polyphenols, organic sulfur, saponins and many other secondary metabolites, which are mainly responsible for its medicinal activities. Its organic sulfur compounds, which contribute for its different medicinal potentials are sensitive towards cooking; moreover this sensitivity is also variety dependant which means it’s more beneficial in its raw form. On the basis of reviewed literature it is concluded that it possesses significant beneficial health effects and its incorporation in daily food especially in raw form will provide protection against many diseases.
  Mohammad Jalil Zorriehzahra , Ruchi Tiwari , Swati Sachan , Kumaragurubaran Karthik , Yashpal Singh Malik , Maryam Dadar , Muhammad Sarwar , Maryam Sayab and Kuldeep Dhama
  In the current scenario of increasing and emerging drug resistance in various microbial pathogens, traditional antibiotics are becoming less effective and thus globally research has focused on developing alternative therapeutic regimens having efficient germ killing abilities. The leading alternatives include use of phages, prebiotics, probiotics, cytokines, avian egg yolk antibodies, toll like receptors, medical herbs and various other immunomodulatory/immunotherapeutic approaches. Out of these valuable therapies, the application of oral passive immunization using avian egg yolk antibodies (Immunoglobulin Y, IgY) offers promising future avenues for designing and developing novel prophylactic and treatment strategies against infectious diseases in both humans and animals, particularly countering the enteric pathogens. Hitherto studies confirm beneficial applications of IgY antibodies in animals (Calves, lamb and goat, cats and dogs), poultry and humans, however such studies in fish and aquatic animals are comparatively less. The present study presents as overview on avian egg antibodies, their salient features, advantages and limitations and then describes the potential therapeutic applications of IgY for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases of fish and aquatic animal species, as well as speculating the future prospects of upcoming IgY technology. Taking into account the valuable prophylactic and therapeutic applications of IgY antibodies, further explorative research in this area could pave way for designing and developing effective pharmaceuticals and treatment options for various infectious diseases of fish/aquaculture animals as well as for safeguarding health of humans and their companion animals.
  Muhammad Saeed , Xu Yatao , Zaib Ur Rehman , Muhammad Asif Arain , Rab Nawaz Soomro , Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack , Zohaib Ahmed Bhutto , Benazir Abbasi , Kuldeep Dhama , Muhammad Sarwar and Sun Chao
  Non-digestible oligosaccharides as well as phenolic compounds inulins and fructooligosaccharides of Smallanthus sonchifolius make it an attractive functional food. Consumption of these non-digestible oligosaccharides improves gastrointestinal metabolism, increases the growth of bifido bacteria in the colon and also acts as antioxidant, antimicrobial, prebiotic, growth promoter, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective compounds via lowering alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and increasing mineral absorption to maintain bone homeostasis and also help to reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Past to present literature have been reviewed and the results indicated that Smallanthus sonchifolius root consumption modulates the immune system by regulating the intestinal secretion of IgA and interferon IFN-γ subsequently enhancing resistance to infections and allergic reactions. This role not only facilitates the exclusion of potential pathogenic bacteria but also ultimately increases defense of the host. Previously published literature has focused on rat, human, pig and livestock but biological and clinical evidence is scarce on the same aspect in poultry. Therefore, this review article aimed to highlight the origin, chemical composition, different beneficial uses and biohazards of yacon plant (which contains 70-80% fructooligosaccharides (FOS)) that could be used as a novel natural prebiotic in poultry feed. The FOS could improve different health aspects and productive performance criteria of different poultry species. To recommend yacon plant as a natural and safe medicinal agent, more indices need to be determined in further studies on different livestock and poultry species on molecular level to assure its benefits and to give accurate recommendation for the optimal levels to be added as feed additive.
  Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack , Mahmoud Alagawany , Mayada Ragab Farag , Muhammad Arif , Mohamed Emam , Kuldeep Dhama , Muhammad Sarwar and Maryam Sayab
  The concept of "Nanoparticle" is not applied to the individual molecules but it is usually used to indicate to the inorganic materials. These particles vary into different kinds due to their ability to carry different components and act to various conditions of the environment. The different sorts of nanoparticles are used in various sectors such as nutrition, pharmacy, medicine, drug delivery, therapeutics, vaccine formulations, diagnostics, chemical industry, biotechnology and biomedicine for safeguarding health of humans and animals as well as enhancing growth and production performances. The application of nanotechnology is very important in the 21st century to clean up the environment from contaminants by eco-friendly, sustainable, green and economically technologies. Nanotechnology became an essential element of pharmaceutical sciences and nanomaterials have found many applications in systems of drug delivery to enhance the therapeutic performance and efficacy of different drugs and medicines. Most of the current "Nano" systems of drug delivery are linage of conventional dosage forms like nanomicelles, nanoemulsions and nanosuspensions. Also, nanotechnology will have a major role in the future areas of animal nutrition research. Nano additives could be incorporated in capsules or micelles of protein or other natural feed or food component. The use of nutrient nanoparticles may improve the bioavailability of carried nutrients by the epithelial barriers of the gut and their susceptibility to gastrointestinal degradation by digestive enzymes. Offering the matter in a nano form may also improve the functionality of feed/food molecules to the benefit of final product quality.
  Muhammad Saeed , Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack , Mahmoud Alagawany , Muhammad A. Arain , Muhammad Arif , Muhammad A. Mirza , Muhammad Naveed , Sun Chao , Muhammad Sarwar , Maryam Sayab and Kuldeep Dhama
  Chicory (Cichorium intybus) is a perennial herbal plant of the dandelion family Asteraceae, usually with bright blue flowers, rarely pink or white. Several varieties are cultivated for salad leaves, chicons or roots which are baked, ground and used as a coffee substitute and supplement. It is also grown as a forage plant for poultry and animal. In addition, chicory herb plays a key role as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, sedative, immunological, productive and reproductive enhancer, cardiovascular, hypolipidemic, anticancer, anti-protozoal, gastroprotective, antidiabetic, analgesic, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, wound healing and bitter tonic without inducing therapeutic adverse effect. Regarding the hepatoprotective activity, chicory extract reduced the levels of hepatic enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Also, chicory plant is a good and very important protective source for hepatocytes and other liver cells as well as it is used as prebiotic against some species of pathogenic bacteria for both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, it enhances immunity and feed efficiency by decreasing pathogenic microorganisms of gastrointestinal tract. Cichorium intybus roots also were used for the relief of mild digestive disorders, such as feeling of flatulence, abdominal fullness, temporary loss of appetite and slow digestion. The present study highlights the importance of chicory as a feed additive used to improve growth and productive performance of poultry as well as salient beneficial applications in animals and humans. Furthermore, it explains the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of chicory and to find the effective level in poultry that would act as liver tonic.
  Bagathi Srinuvasa Rao , Gajula Naveen Venkata Kishore , Muhammad Sarwar and Nalamalapu Konda Reddy
  The purpose of this paper was to prove some fixed point theorems in Sb-metric spaces by using (α, β)-admissible Geraghty type rational contractive conditions and some suitable examples have been provided with relevant to the results. Also, an application to Homotopy theory as well as integral equations were given.
  Muhammad Sarwar
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  Shahid Iqbal , Tariq Mahmood , Tahira , Muhammad Ali , Muhammad Anwar and Muhammad Sarwar
  Interrelationships between yield and its components were determined by genotypic correlation and path coefficient analysis in ten soybean varieties. The results indicated that seed yield plant–1 was positively and significantly associated with all parameters studied. The results also showed that pods plant–1 has maximum positive direct effect on yield plant–1. It was followed by 100 seed weight and seeds pod–1. Plant height had negative direct effect on yield plant–1. It was concluded that pods plant–1, seeds pod-` and 100 seed weight were the main yield components.
  Muhammad Nouman Sohail and Muhammad Sarwar
  Not Available
  Maryam Sayab , Muhammad Sarwar and Ravindra P. Veeranna

Redundant Publication, also known as duplicate/dual publication is an unethical practice and a serious threat to research integrity which must not be ignored, either if done accidentally or by choice. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) narrates redundant publication as “Publication of a paper that overlaps substantially with one already published in print or electronic media”1.

Redundant Publications are most often the result of duplicate or multiple submissions of a single manuscript by the author to different journals either simultaneously or after getting a concurrent review by another journal. This act of misconduct not only damages the research integrity but also wastes the efforts and time of editors, peer reviewers and editorial staff. An author must be careful enough and submit the original findings to only one Journal at a time, which haven’t been published yet or under consideration by any other journal(s). Preserving the research integrity, the journals must also publicly declare their Dual Submission Policy and consequences according to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and should not consider manuscripts that are simultaneously under review by other journals. Moreover, the copyright agreement should clearly state “That the submitted paper has not been submitted elsewhere and will not submit to any other journals for publication unless being rejected or un-notified within some period of time, clearly stated”.

Recently one of the Journal members of the Asian Council of Science Editors (ACSE) has requested the council’s guidance, advice and opinion on a case on Dual Submissions leading to Dual Publication2. The case concerns the duplicate submission of a manuscript by the same authors who had first published their article in a Journal A in the year 2011, which was also the year of submission of the manuscript to this journal. Soon after the paper was published by the journal A the same author submitted the very same paper to another local journal, named Journal B and he was successful in getting the same paper published in Journal B.

Upon receiving the notification and queries from indexing databases for the dual publication of their paper, the author immediately wrote to Journal A, to withdraw their published paper because the article is also published in another local Journal B.

In this situation, the editor of Journal A wrote the author several times that it’s unethical and counted as misconduct under the category of dual submission and publication. Editor of Journal A also explained to the author that as the article was first published with Open Access in Journal A, so the author has no right to withdraw this paper because the findings have been open for the entire research community to read and reproduce. Also, Journal A had the copyright statement from the authors, at the time of acceptance of the paper prior to its publication so the author cannot claim to withdraw the paper at this stage.

Rather than understanding the editorial policies and admitting the misconduct, the author insists to withdraw his article from Journal A, which published this manuscript before Journal B.

With reference to this case, the editor of Journal A has submitted the following questions to the Asian Council of Science Editors to help them figure out the best solution follow up to this misconduct case:

• What should be the practical advice to Publisher of Journal A?

• Who is responsible for such misconduct?

• If the author is responsible what should we do for the author’s wrongdoing?

• Should we pursue the matter with the editor of the journal (Journal B) who has published the duplicate submission?

This case detail was also circulated among the members of the ACSE via the official blog of the ACSE, getting 2,347 views and 64 real-time comments from the Asian research community. All the members of the council have participated actively in discussion over this case and the diverse suggestions, opinions, views from the scholarly community for each of the question are:

What should be the practical advice to Publisher of Journal A?

• Journal A has published the manuscript earlier than Journal B and should retain the publication

• Journal A should retract the paper because of dual publication

• Both Journals should remove the paper from their website

• Blacklist such authors and inform their employer

• Officially inform both the author and author’s institution that this article has been retracted due to the unethical practices of the author

• Contact the editor of Journal B and discuss the misconduct and accordingly blacklist the author

• Both the Journals are suggested to write an editorial on “Dual submission and publication and its consequences” to spread awareness among the research community and to avoid such next cases

Who is responsible for such misconduct?

• The approximate ratio calculated from the collective analysis of discussion is as

• 85% audience blamed the author

• 10% audience blamed both the editor of journal B and author

• 4% audience blamed Journal B

• 1% audience blamed Journal A

If the author is responsible, what should we do for the author’s wrongdoing?

• The author should be blacklisted

• The misconduct case must be reported to the author’s institute along with details

• The paper must be retracted from both of the journals

• Author should be given a chance of explanation to both journals and accordingly withdrawing the article from one of the journals. ( most probably B)

• Journal A should publish an editorial depicting this misconduct and retract the paper

Should we pursue the matter with the editor of the journal (Journal B) who has published the duplicate submission?

• Majority recommends approaching Journal B to explore the actual details of misconduct and accordingly deal with the misconduct case under the guidelines of ethical committees

• Minority recommends to not to approach Journal B and retract the paper from Journal A

Seeking out the expert guidance on this submitted case, the description of this case along with the opinions of ACSE members on the Blog was sent to the Advisory Board Members of the ACSE as well as their members of Committee on Asian Publishing Standard (CAPS) for the proficient suggestions and remedies.

According to the Experts of the ACSE dual submissions is the least understood category of publishing misconduct and imparts a significant negative impact on the scholarly research community. The main cause leading to dual submissions include the researcher’s fast approach to publishing the research results, especially early career researchers.

Dr. Kasier Jamil, Vice President of the ACSE emphasized that the author should never submit the article to two journals simultaneously. Journal A is at no fault if they had the signed copyright agreement. However, publisher A has a choice of not withdrawing the paper and informing the author about unethical practice. On the other hand, Journal B did not check properly if the paper has already been published to any other journal.

Because the author submitted the paper after the paper had been published in Journal A, there are only two cases according to Charley Miao, Regional Director of the ACSE, as below:

Case one: Journal A signed an agreement. The author should be clearly asked to retract the paper from Journal B (in case Journal A has not done so yet) and Journal B should agree on this requirement and retract the paper as soon as possible.

However, if the author still insisted on his opinion, the paper should be retracted from both Journal A and Journal B, after Journal A has contacted Journal B and Journal B have also agreed to do so. In addition, Journal A should also notify the author’s working unit about the author’s unethical behavior.

Case two: Journal A had not signed an agreement, then Journal A has to retract the paper unluckily, while Journal B could decide independently whether to retract the paper or not.

The author has to commit that the article has not been sent to another journal in part or whole article. If the author has submitted such a letter to both the publishers, then it’s the author’s fault. And the article must be withdrawn from both journals.

One of the Advisory board members of the ACSE Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aslam, Pro-VC, NUMS, Pakistan, shared the possible approach of this case as:

• The author may be asked to withdraw the article for journal B and this fact be published in the journal

• If the author doesn’t agree, then ACSE may write to journal B with evidence to withdraw and publicize the dual/ duplicate publication in the journal

• If author, as well as journal B, don’t agree, then journal A may withdraw and publicize the fact in the journal. The author may be issued a written warning and penalty NOT to accept his article(s) in Journal A for the next 3-5 years

Highlighting the importance of this Issue Dr. Ravindra P. Veeranna, one of the ambassadors of the ACSE from Department of Biochemistry, CSIR-CFTRI, India brought a few points under consideration:

• Since the article is published first in the journal A, it is the responsibility of the authors (all the authors of the manuscript not only corresponding author) and also the editor of journal B to make sure that the manuscript is not submitted any other journal for publication

• Include the concept of ORCID in this case report, i.e., the journals should make ORCID mandatory so that the manuscript submitted simultaneously to more than one journal can be checked easily based on ORCID in the online interface

• The author should not only withdraw the manuscript from journal B, the author(s) involved in the dual publication should also apologize to both the journals

• It is mentioned in the present case that the authors go for dual publications mainly because of the fast publication of results especially in the early career researchers. Considering this perspective of the young researchers, the committee on publication ethics should make it mandatory to give the first decision from journals at the earliest, maybe a fixed period of 10 or 15 days

Further to the submitted case, the editor must contact with the corresponding author asking the detailed explanation about this and also figure out the time duration between both publications. As Journal A has prior published the paper and if it holds the agreement of the copyright, the publication must retain with Journal A. The editor of Journal A may communicate the author to withdraw the paper from Journal B and explain to them the situation of being guilty or the editor of Journal A may share the article history with the editor of Journal B and request them to withdraw this paper as they re-published the already published paper.

Also, both Journals should initiate a letter of warning to ban the author on submission for both journals for 1 or 2 years and inform the author’s supervisor about his unethical act to ensure that the author does not repeat this practice in the future. Moreover, the suggestion for journals is to revise their policy requiring copyright transfer on submission and make sure that the submissions must not be published already before accepting the article.

  Muhammad Sarwar , Ghulam Jilani , Ejaz Rafique , Muhammad Ehsan Akhtar and Arshad Nawaz Chaudhry
  A field study was conducted to determine the effect of Zinc (Zn) application as well as interactive effect of organic and mineral fertilizer sources of nitrogen (N) on maize productivity and nutrient uptake during 2008 at NARC, Islamabad. Four combinations of N sources, viz. control; 100 % recommended dose of N from Chemical Fertilizer (CF); 75% N from CF + 25% N from Farm Yard Manure (FYM) and 50% N from CF + 50% N from FYM and three levels of Zn fertilizer, viz. 0, 4, 8 kg Zn/ha were applied. Maximum maize grain yield, viz., 5.18 t/ha was obtained with 75% + 25% (CF + FYM) and 4 kg Zn/ha. It was statistically at par with treatment having 50% + 50% (CF + FYM) and 4 kg Zn/ha as well as 75% + 25% and 8 kg Zn/ha. Zinc application also enhanced maize grain yield by 12% over treatment where no Zn was applied i.e. 4.08 t/ha. Highest N uptake, viz., 98.7 kg/ha was observed with 50% + 50% (CF + FYM) and 8 kg Zn/ha application. Similarly, maximum Zn uptake, viz., 250.7 g/ha was observed with 75% + 25 % (CF + FYM) and 4 kg Zn/ha application. The study revealed that substitution of 25 or 50% N with FYM + 4 kg Zn/ha performed better than 100% N fertilizer alone, with respect to leaf area index, grain and straw yield, soil organic matter content and nutrient uptake.
  Anser Ali , Shahzad M.A. Basra , Safdar Hussain , Javaid Iqbal , M. Ahmad Alias Haji A. Bukhsh and Muhammad Sarwar
  Soil salinity is a huge problem negatively affecting physiological and metabolic processes in plant life, ultimately diminishing growth and yield. Salts taken up by the plants influence the plant growth by inducing adverse effects on different physiological and biochemical processes, including turgor, photosynthesis and enzymatic activities. Mechanisms responsible for reduction in plant growth under salt stress are: (1) Osmotic stress, (2) Specific ion toxicity, (3) Nutritional imbalance and (4) Oxidative stress. Different approaches such as introduction of new genes into genotypes responsible for salt tolerance, screening of large international collections and conduct of field trials on selected genotypes, conventional and non-conventional breeding methods and adequate regulation of mineral nutrients have been employed to enhance salinity tolerance in plants. Saline agriculture and exogenous application of mineral elements including Si has been professed as cost effective approach to ameliorate the salt stress in cereal crops like wheat. Si is categorized as a beneficial element in plant biology. It is unquestionably an important requirement for the normal growth of many plants and must be called as “Quasi essential”. Si amendment also plays a pivotal role to enhance chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and rigidity of plants under stressful conditions. There are different mechanisms by which Si mediates salinity tolerance in plants. It maintains the plant water status under saline conditions. It reduces uptake of Na+ by improving K+: Na+ and also alleviates the toxicity of other heavy metals. It application helps to improve the defensive system of the plants by producing anti-oxidants which in turn detoxify reactive oxygen species. Morphological and physiological improvements in plants were observed due to Si deposition within plant body under salt stress conditions. Silicon improves growth and dry matter production under salt stress conditions. Its application also enhances the crop performance against biotic stress. It is, therefore, suggested that supplemental application of Si must be included in salt stress alleviation management techniques.
  M. Mudassar Maqbool , Maqbool Ahmad , Anser Ali , Rashid Mehmood , Muhammad Ahmad and Muhammad Sarwar
  In agricultural system, the application of Phosphorous (P) to the soil is essential to make sure the crop productivity as the recovery of applied P by crops becomes very low during growth period. The way, phosphorus is applied is also critical in wheat growth and development. For this purpose a field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different P fertilizers and their methods of application on wheat growth and yield. Different Phosphorus fertilizers Mono-Ammonium Phosphate (MAP), Di-ammonium Phosphate (DAP) and Triple Super Phosphate (TSP) @ 100 kg ha-1 were applied through: broadcasting, application with the seed, application 5 cm to the right and left of the seed and 5 cm below the seed. The effects of MAP, DAP and TSP on the characteristics examined was non-significant. However, effects of application methods on plant height, the number of plants m-2, biological and grain yield were found to be highly significant. The maximum grain yield was obtained from application of phosphorus 5 cm below the seed as compare with any other method. It was concluded that the method of P application 5 cm below the seed is successful agro-technique to improve and sustain the wheat growth.
  Muhammad Sarwar , Iftikhar Ahmad Khan , Faqir Muhammad Azhar and Asghar Ali
  Four genotypes of Gossypium hirsutum L; two drought tolerant (NIAB-78, CIM-482) and two susceptible (CIM-446 and FH-1000) were selected to make cross combinations. The parents, F1, F2 and backcross generations of two crosses were studied under drought and normal conditions in the field to find gene action involved in the inheritance of the traits; number of bolls per plant, boll weight, seed cotton yield and ginning out turn. There were significant differences among six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2) of two crosses for all the plant traits both under normal and drought conditions. Generation means analysis revealed additive, dominance and epistatic genetic effects operating in the phenotypic manifestation of the plant characters under both the conditions.
  Muhammad Sarwar , Anser Ali , M. Mudassar Maqbool , Muhammad Ahmad , Rashid Mahmood and Tanveer Ul Haq
  Weed-crop competition is a complex field of study. The extent of competition is governed by a number of factors including crop species, crop cultivar, crop density, weed species, weed density, the relative time of emergence of the crop and weed, the duration of the weed presence, the efficiency of weed control and soil and environmental factors. The greatest single cause of economic loss is, however, a reduction in yield due to weeds competing with the crop for available light, nutrients and moisture. The effect of Phalaris minor and Avena fatua on wheat was investigated at agronomic research area, College of Agriculture, Dera Ghazi Khan during 2007-2008. The experiment was laid out according to Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) having four replications and a net plot size of 5x2.5m. Plant density of 2, 4, 6 and 8 m-2 for Phalaris minor and Avena fatua was maintained. The data collected were analyzed using appropriate statistical techniques. Maximum plant density of wheat (96.500) was observed in T1 (control). All other parameters like total number of tillers (403.25), number of fertile tillers (400.25) and maximum plant height (86.750) was also observed in T1(control). Growth and yield parameters like number of spike lets/spike, number of grains/spike, 1000 grain weight, grain yield and biological yield showed significant response in the presence of Phalaris minor and Avena fatua under study. Maximum grain yield (7.0500 t/ha) was obtained in T1 (control) and T2 (6.8500 t/ha) and T6 (6.8750 t/ha), respectively. Maximum biological yield (14.875 t/ha) was obtained in T1control) and T2 (15.750 t/ha) and T6 (15.975 t/ha), respectively. It can be conclude from the current study that presence of weeds (Phalaris minor and Avena fatua) in wheat has remarkable adverse effect on the yield and its contributing factors. As the density increases, the crop performance is gradually declined.
  Muhammad Sarwar
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  Muhammad Sarwar
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  Muhammad Sarwar
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