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Articles by Muhammad Faheem Malik
Total Records ( 8 ) for Muhammad Faheem Malik
  Muhammad Faheem Malik , Liaquat Ali and Sohail Anwar
  Pheromone traps of codling moth (Cydia pomonella L., Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were installed at different heights (2, 4, 6 and 8 m from the ground) in apple (Pyrus malus Linn., Rosaceae: Pomoidea) canopy in a private farmer orchard, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan. Maximum capture was through the traps, hanged at 4 m from the ground. The study reveals that pheromone traps could use for the control of codling moth if installed at suggested height.
  Muhammad Faheem Malik , Arshad Ghani Khan , Abdul Karim Jafer , Liaquat Ali , Sohail Anwar and Akhtar Munir
  The article provides a bibliographic review of investigation about Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); control, through the entire world. It contains different aspects; biology, morphology and different control strategies of the moth in apple, Pyrus malus Linn. (Rosaceae: Pomoidea) orchards. It is revealed that the moth is getting resistance to the pesticides thus other control measures like microbial insecticides, Bacillus thuringiensis, granulosis virus, biological agent, pheromone, mating disruptant, and selected/alternative use of pesticides are recommended.
  Muhammad Faheem Malik , Arshad Ghani Khan , Syed Waseem Hussainy , Daud-ur-Rahman and Muhammad Amin
  Pheromone traps of American/cotton bollworm (ACBW) (Helicoverpa armigera, Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were installed at 4 m from the ground in apple (Pyrus malus Linn., Rosaceae: Pomoidea) canopy in the two adjacent apple orchards in Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan. Maximum capture was through the traps, hanged at the edges of the orchards. First moth, in the orchard, was appeared on 22nd (at 16.65 oC) and 8th March (at 12.00 oC) during 1995 and 96 respectively. Population climax of the moth was observed at 19.00 (32 moths on 7th April) and 18.75 oC (36 moths on 27th March) during 1995 and 96 respectively. During 1995 the pest remained in the orchard for 29 while in 1996 for 24 days. The study reveals that pheromone traps could affectively be used for the scouting/control of the said pest in apple canopy.
  Muhammad Faheem Malik , Mohammad Nawaz and Zahid Hafeez
  A diagnostic survey was conducted to evaluate the importance, methodology of agronomic practices, agronomy irrigation, plant protection activities and economic status of onion (Allium cepa L.) in Balochistan, Pakistan. 180 onion respondents (growers/professionals) were interviewed through a formatted questionnaire at their doorsteps. Survey revealed that the crop plays an important role in the economy of the province and 100% respondents of the region cultivate the crop because of net return. At least 0.49 ha is under onion cultivation by each respondent. Maximum average area under onion cultivation and yield was reported from Kalat division (3.09 ha and 17758 kg ha‾1 respectively). In Kalat and Nasirabad divisions mostly young generation (<35 years) is engaged with agriculture farming. In Quetta and Zhob divisions the farmers are mostly between 36-50 years of age. Sibi and Makran have old farmers (50 years). Mostly Local and Sariab Surkh onion varieties are cultivated by broadcasted method with a range 12-16 kg ha‾1 seed rate. Fertilizer is applied in Kalat, Quetta and Nasirabad only while pesticides in Kalat, Quetta, Nasirabad and Zhob divisions. The crop is provided by 16-30 (minimum to maximum) irrigations. Irrigation water, thrips (Thrips spp.) attack and presence of weeds is the major reported problems of the crop in the province. Hand weeding for the eradication of weeds is used in all divisions. Best cost/benefit ratio (1: 4.49) was calculated from Nasirabad and least (1: 2.60) from Makran division.
  Muhammad Faheem Malik
  The experiment was conducted to determine the shelf life for 20, 40 & 60 days of different development stages of Trichogrammatoidea bactrae at three different temperatures (0,4,& 8 °C) with two light/dark regimes (9/15 light/dark hours & complete darkness). It was observed that under the conditions of this test, the best shelf life (>57% adult emergence) was obtained when pupae were held at 8 °C for any holding time tested. Among the environmental factors tested (temperature, holding time and photoperiod) temperature was the most important. T. bactrae might overwinter either in egg or pupal stage.
  Muhammad Faheem Malik
  The peed of development, (Egg to adult emergence) of Trichogrammatoidea bactrae ranged from 7.273 to 6.532 days between temperatures 30 to 40 °C. Immature mortality was maximum (71.88%) at 40 °C and minimum (39.77 %) at 30 °C. More females than males were found at all tested temperatures. Fecundity was 31 per female at 30 °C and 19 per female at 40 °C. Females lived longer than males at all tested temperatures. The net reproductive rate (Ro), intrinsic rate of increase (rm) and finite rate of increase ( ) (16.98, 0.30 and 1.43 respectively ) were maximum at 30 °C. From these results, 30 °C is the best temperature for rearing T. bactrae in the laboratory with 45% RH and 14/10 photoperiod. At 30 °C parasitoid can produced about 33 generations in a year. Upper threshold temperature for T. bactrae looks around 45°C.
  Muhammad Faheem Malik
  The experiment was performed to determine the viability of the Trichogrammatoidea bactrae (Trichogrammatidae: Hymenoptera) pupae, after being held, at three different temperatures (10, 12 & 14 °C) for 80, 100 and 120 days in complete darkness with 45% relative humidity. Temperature 10 °C with 80 days holding time is the best combination for the storage of the pupae of the parasitoid. Under the said environmental conditions >53% adult emergence was obtained when the stored pupae were exposed to normal physical conditions (28 °C, 55% relative humidity and 11/13 light/dark photoperiod).
  Muhammad Faheem Malik
  The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of host age and photoperiod on the parasitism of Trichogrammatoidea bactrae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Pink Bollworm (PBW, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) eggs were used as host. The host eggs of different ages (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days old) were exposed to two pairs of the parasitoid (T. bactrae) at two light/dark regimes (complete light & complete darkness) with constant 75% relative humidity and 28 °C temperature. It was observed that under the conditions of this test, maximum parasitization, > 90% by T. bactrae, was obtained when 1 or 2 days old host (PBW) eggs were held in complete light.
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