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Articles by Muhammad Ahmad
Total Records ( 8 ) for Muhammad Ahmad
  Aisha Bibi , Nosheen Ellahi , Anser Ali , Fida Hussain , Nisar Hussain and Muhammad Ahmad
  Seedlings of Vicia faba were germinated and grown on moist filter paper in Petri dishes for about ten days. Seedlings of uniform size were then transplanted into pots containing garden soil and different NaCl treatments/EC values i.e 0.2 (control), 1.3, 2.4, 4.6, 9.1, 13.6, 18.0 and 22.5 mS/cm. Root and shoot lengths, their fresh and dry weights and root nodulation were recorded at different intervals after transplantation. Fresh and dry weight of shoot generally decreased with increasing NaCl levels in Vicia faba. Plants of treatment (control), 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 remain alive, their weight and length of shoot increased with the passage of time and the weight first increased and then decreased with increasing NaCl levels. Similar results were obtained for roots, but other die. In Vicia faba flowering and pod formation was negligible during first, second and third harvest at any treatment. Nodule formation was observed and the number of nodules per plant decreased with increasing NaCl levels. It was that increasing trends of salinity levels in Vacia faba caused a reduction in the growth of morphological characters and nutritional stress by decreasing in nodulation number and weight age.
  M. Mudassar Maqbool , Maqbool Ahmad , Anser Ali , Rashid Mehmood , Muhammad Ahmad and Muhammad Sarwar
  In agricultural system, the application of Phosphorous (P) to the soil is essential to make sure the crop productivity as the recovery of applied P by crops becomes very low during growth period. The way, phosphorus is applied is also critical in wheat growth and development. For this purpose a field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different P fertilizers and their methods of application on wheat growth and yield. Different Phosphorus fertilizers Mono-Ammonium Phosphate (MAP), Di-ammonium Phosphate (DAP) and Triple Super Phosphate (TSP) @ 100 kg ha-1 were applied through: broadcasting, application with the seed, application 5 cm to the right and left of the seed and 5 cm below the seed. The effects of MAP, DAP and TSP on the characteristics examined was non-significant. However, effects of application methods on plant height, the number of plants m-2, biological and grain yield were found to be highly significant. The maximum grain yield was obtained from application of phosphorus 5 cm below the seed as compare with any other method. It was concluded that the method of P application 5 cm below the seed is successful agro-technique to improve and sustain the wheat growth.
  Uzma Khalid , Farhana Nosheen , Safdar Hussain , M.A. Tarar , Saba Sadiq and Muhammad Ahmad
  Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) in early childhood is spectrum of deficiency disease. At its one end there is kwashiorkor and on the other is nutritional marasmus, all the developing countries are at great risk of developing PEM among children. The main objective of study was to assess the nutritional status of primary school children. It was achieved by well designed questionnaire using anthropometric, dietary patterns and clinical signs of children belonging from different socio-economic statuses. Total 46 urban school age children less than 12 years were selected through simple random sampling technique. It was found that young children (both boys and girls) were suffering from PEM were under weight than that of their normal requirement. They use to belong to big family size as indicating unavailability of food or imbalanced nutrition because they hardly take milk or milk products; eat meat, vegetable, fat or cereal group food daily. Only a few children took iron/vitamin syrups. This was expressed in their anthropometric measurements. Most of the children usually lacked apathy impression of skin, turned their hair colour brown, white or grayish, dry and thin. They largely had: enlarged thyroid glands, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly pot belly. They usually had ailments during last six months. They use to face diarrhea, fever diseases and malaria. They mainly use to suffer from phagophagia. Therefore it is suggested that raising the awareness of policy makers on the current magnitude of child malnutrition, country wide and in special subgroups, at city level, enhancing food security by improving storage and distribution systems. Nutrition education should be enhanced thus enabling the individual to distinguish the balanced diet from a deficient one.
  Safdar Hussain , Muhammad Ahmad , Saeed Ahmad , Javaid Iqbal , Muhammad Nasir Subhani , Sajid Mahmood Nadeem , Sagheer Atta and Muhammad Ibrahim
  A field experiment was carried out at the Research area, College of Agriculture, Dera Ghazi Khan to measure the response of spring sowing sunflower to foliar application of abscisic acid (ABA) and potassium chloride under drought. In the experiment four irrigations by flooding (25 days after sowing, at bud initiation, at anthesis and at achene formation stage) were applied in control. Foliar application of 2μM ABA and 1% KCl was made at anthesis stage of sunflower hybrids (NK-265 and SF-187) after skipping the irrigation. Foliar application of 2μM ABA and 1% solution of KCl under drought at anthesis stage significantly increased achene yield and oil yield over skipping irrigation with no ABA and no KCl at anthesis stage. Sunflower hybrid NK-265 showed better drought tolerance compared with SF-187 with foliar application of ABA as well as KCl because it showed improvement in growth and yield. Sunflower hybrids NK-265 had significantly increased achene yield and oil yield than SF-187. Drought stress at anthesis stage to sunflower hybrids showed decrease in agronomic parameters and foliar application of ABA as well as KCl under water deficits improved them. ABA as well as KCl application to sunflower hybrids at anthesis under drought improved achene oil content but decreased achene protein content. Exogenous application of ABA or KCl to NK-265 under drought showed more percent increased in achene yield and oil yield than SF-187 over no ABA and no KCl application. Foliar application of ABA as well as KCl on leaf score at anthesis stage was non-significant. It is, therefore, suggested that foliar application of 2μM ABA and 1% solution of KCl under drought at anthesis stage significantly increased achene yield and oil yield over skipping irrigation, no ABA and no KCl at anthesis stage. Sunflower hybrid NK-265 showed better improvement of drought tolerance by foliar application of ABA as well as KCl than SF-187 because it showed more improvement in growth and yield.
  Safdar Hussain , M. Farrukh Saleem , Javaid Iqbal , Sajid Mahmood Nadeem , Muhammad Ahmad and Muhammad Ibrahim
  Profitability assessment has prime importance for every crop husbandry practice and cultural operation. For this purpose, two field experiment was carried out to investigate the response of spring planted sunflower hybrids to different irrigation levels/schedules and foliar application of abscisic acid. Two studies were done at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. In first study, three irrigation schedules viz. four irrigations (25 DAS, bud initiation, flower initiation and achene formation), three irrigations (25 DAS, flower initiation and achene formation) and three irrigations (25 DAS, bud initiation and achene formation) were used. Sunflower hybrid Hysun-33 was subjected to exogenous application of different concentrations (0, 5μm and 10μm) of ABA at bud initiation or at flower initiation. In second study, Three sunflower hybrids viz. DK-4040 (large stature), S-278 (medium stature) and SF-187 (short stature) were subjected to different irrigation regimes and ABA applications i.e., four irrigations; 25 Days after Sowing (DAS), at bud initiation, flower initiation and achene formation and with no ABA spray, three irrigations; 25 Days after Sowing (DAS), at flower initiation and achene formation and with no ABA spray, three irrigations; 25 Days after Sowing (DAS), at flower initiation and achene formation and with ABA spray at bud initiation, three irrigations; 25 Days after Sowing (DAS), at bud initiation and achene formation and with no ABA spray, three irrigations; (25 Days after Sowing (DAS), at bud initiation and achene formation and with ABA spray at flower initiation. In first study, It was observed that three irrigations (25 DAS, at flower initiation and at achene formation), when 5μM ABA was applied at bud initiation under drought resulted in more profitable as compared to exogenous application of same concentration of ABA at flower initiation. So, it is suggested that three irrigations (25 DAS, at flower initiation and at achene formation), with foliar spray of 5μM ABA should be applied at bud initiation under drought. In second study, the dominance and marginal analysis about sunflower hybrids revealed that maximum Marginal Rate of Return (MRR) in sunflower hybrids was observed in T1 (control). Drought stress at bud initiation or at flower initiation reduced marginal rate of return. ABA application to DK-4040 under drought at bud initiation showed more increase in MRR than SF-187 and S-278.
  Muhammad Sarwar , Anser Ali , M. Mudassar Maqbool , Muhammad Ahmad , Rashid Mahmood and Tanveer Ul Haq
  Weed-crop competition is a complex field of study. The extent of competition is governed by a number of factors including crop species, crop cultivar, crop density, weed species, weed density, the relative time of emergence of the crop and weed, the duration of the weed presence, the efficiency of weed control and soil and environmental factors. The greatest single cause of economic loss is, however, a reduction in yield due to weeds competing with the crop for available light, nutrients and moisture. The effect of Phalaris minor and Avena fatua on wheat was investigated at agronomic research area, College of Agriculture, Dera Ghazi Khan during 2007-2008. The experiment was laid out according to Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) having four replications and a net plot size of 5x2.5m. Plant density of 2, 4, 6 and 8 m-2 for Phalaris minor and Avena fatua was maintained. The data collected were analyzed using appropriate statistical techniques. Maximum plant density of wheat (96.500) was observed in T1 (control). All other parameters like total number of tillers (403.25), number of fertile tillers (400.25) and maximum plant height (86.750) was also observed in T1(control). Growth and yield parameters like number of spike lets/spike, number of grains/spike, 1000 grain weight, grain yield and biological yield showed significant response in the presence of Phalaris minor and Avena fatua under study. Maximum grain yield (7.0500 t/ha) was obtained in T1 (control) and T2 (6.8500 t/ha) and T6 (6.8750 t/ha), respectively. Maximum biological yield (14.875 t/ha) was obtained in T1control) and T2 (15.750 t/ha) and T6 (15.975 t/ha), respectively. It can be conclude from the current study that presence of weeds (Phalaris minor and Avena fatua) in wheat has remarkable adverse effect on the yield and its contributing factors. As the density increases, the crop performance is gradually declined.
  Babak Mahmood , Shabbir Hussain , Malik Muhammad Sohail , Nisar Hussain and Muhammad Ahmad
  This study investigates the level of awareness about malnutrition and poor drinking water on the child health in Chiniot. Lack of improved drinking water and sanitation services causes major diseases like diarrhea affecting health status and mortality among children. Using a quantitative data, the study’s major objective was to determine whether access to improved sources of water and nutrition in Chiniot are affective for health of children who are less than five years of age. Potential mechanism behind the relationships between child health and different types of water supply and sanitation services are also explored. Data were collected from different villages of Chiniot. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to collect a sample of 200 respondents. Interview schedule was used as a tool for data collection. The main objectives of this study were to study the awareness of rural people about the effects of malnutrition and poor water supply on child health. The major findings of this study are that mostly people in rural settings have not awareness about malnutrition, poor drinking water and children health. Mostly people are less educated and pay no attention on children health.
  Amjed Ali , Ashfaq Ahmad , Tasneem Khaliq , Anser Ali and Muhammad Ahmad
  Sunflower because of its quantity and quality of edible oil occupies an important position in the world among the new oil seed crops. To improve achene yield and quality of sunflower in our country different strategies have been adopted. One is to increase number of plants per unit area, which ultimately needs more nitrogen for its physiological and nutritional requirements. Normally, by increasing plant density decreases plant height, head diameter and 1000-achene weight. On the other hand, generally high rate of nitrogen application leads to more rapid leaf area development, prolongs life of foliage, increases leaf area duration after flowering and enhance on the whole crop assimilation, consequently contributing to increase in seed production. By the N application head diameter, 1000-seed weight, biological yield, seed yield per head, seed yield per plant were increased though harvest index and seed oil concentration were decreased. With the increase of nitrogen supply leaf gas exchange and shoot dry weight parameters improved but beyond that these decreased and optimum nitrogen concentrations were different among cultivars. Seed viability, seedling vigor and cool germination test performance, leaf area index, biomass production, seed weight and seed yield per unit area all were found to increase significantly due to the addition of the high N rate. Grain yield and photosynthesis active radiation absorption increase with increasing nitrogen levels and plant density. However, excess rates of nitrogen by enhancing vegetative growth of aerial parts, prolongs the periods to flowering and physiological maturity. High concentration of nitrogen did not affect specific leaf weight but resulted in more dry matter production per plant. With increase in N supply, RUE might also increase but in a lower order than LAI and IPAR. Nitrogen application appreciably enhanced interception of PAR and RUE of sunflower crop sown in irrigated areas. It is, therefore, concluded that while considering the optimum plant density in sunflower nitrogen should rates should also revised to harvest maximum achene and oil yield.
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