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Articles by Muhajir Hamid
Total Records ( 2 ) for Muhajir Hamid
  Caroline Manicam , Li Teng Khoo , Janna Ong Abdullah , Eusni Rahayu Mohd Tohit , Zainina Seman , Chin Chin Sieo and Muhajir Hamid
  Many plant based medicines used since time immemorial have never undergone vigorous scientific testing, despite countless reports on cases of health hazards arising from their unbridled usage. In light of this, since recent research has unearthed a novel anticoagulant property present in the Melastoma malabathricum leaf extract, this study evaluated its subacute safety profile. Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were orally administered with deionized water (vehicle control), 50, 75 and 100 mg kg-1 aqueous leaf extract daily for 28 days. At day 29, all animals were scarified. Blood samples were collected and analyzed blood biochemical enzymes; while, organs were harvested, weighed and subjected to tissues histopathological examination. There were no aberrant physical and behavioral changes in the treated rats. However, blood chemistry analysis revealed significant elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels. Correspondingly, histopathology of liver and kidney tissues showed extensive toxic manifestations. All hepatic venous structures appeared dilated and congested. Tissue hemorrhage and tubular damage were seen in the kidneys. These results collectively highlight the predisposition of Melastoma extract to be hepato- and nephrotoxic if taken repeatedly via oral route for a long period. This is the first exploratory study on the nature of Melastoma leaf’s aqueous extract subacute oral toxicity.
  Farhana Aminuddin , Faisal Ali , Amin Ismail , Chong Pei Pei and Muhajir Hamid
  Cocoa, the fruit of Theobroma cacao plant is traditionally used in the folk medicine as a pharmaceutical for blood pressure reduction and cardiovascular diseases prevention. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) is widely known to improve insulin sensitivity and is thereby being used as a major drug target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study investigated the anti-diabetic/anti-obesity effects of cocoa polyphenol-rich extract (CoPE) using obese-diabetic rats (Sprague Dawley rats). Sprague Dawley rats received either normal diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet with additional cocoa polyphenols for 8 weeks. After the end of the treatment, body weight, plasma glucose and insulin were measured. Furthermore, mRNA and protein levels of PPARγ were measured in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue. Compared to the high-fat diet group, increases in body weight, plasma glucose and insulin were significantly suppressed for CoPE-treated groups. Furthermore, compared to the high-fat diet group, the PPARγ mRNA level was significantly higher in both skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue for CoPE groups. Protein expression of PPARγ in CoPE groups was also significantly higher compared to the high-fat diet group. In conclusion, the anti-diabetic mechanism of actions of CoPE along with metformin hypoglycemic drug is partially attributed to increase expression of PPARγ in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. These results suggest that CoPE could be a useful phytomedicine agent for alleviating insulin resistance.
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