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Articles by Mohammad Arif
Total Records ( 7 ) for Mohammad Arif
  Mohammad Arif and Gourav Bathla
  Sentiment analysis, also known as opinion mining is among the operations of NLP. Due to gradual increase in data like comments, reviews, blogs the direction of research is going or focusing over sentiment analysis. Sentiment analysis has grown interest of researchers of today’s age, sinceits application are growing tremendously. Sentiment analysis is the calculation of conception, sentiments and subjectivity of text. Internet is one of the biggest source from where we can collect our data for analysis. The social networking sites like facebook and twitter are generating huge amount of data filled with sentiments, opinions, comments of people about their friends, situation, products. The sentiment behind every comment, review, blog can be analyzed by opinion mining. I will apply NLP to extract subjective information from text. I have chosen a facebook page of Kashmir named as Wazwan the great Kashmiri cuisine. Wazwan is the traditional cooking of the Kashmir.
  Mohammad Arif and Sher Hassan
  Soybean Mosaic potyvirus (SMV) is highly prevalent in major soybean growing areas of the NWFP. Infected plants exhibited predominantly mosaic and mottling symptoms on leaves and stunted growth due to shortened petioles and internodes. Incidence of the virus ranged from mild to severe infection between 8-72% in areas surveyed. ELISA test further confirmed the incidence of the virus from 7 to 64% in major soybean growing areas of the province, during summer 1997-98. Twelve soybean mosaic virus isolates were collected from soybean crop grown in different areas on the basis of characteristic and distinguishable mosaic and mottling symptoms. Isolates, SMV-S1, S2, S3 from Swat and SMV-P1, P2, P3 from Peshawar were further selected on the basis of severity of symptoms and characterized. SMV-S1, 52, 53 produced severe mosaic on mechanically inoculated soybean (Glycine max) cv. Weber-84, leaf chlorosis and chlorotic local lesions on Phaseolus valgaris and P. lunatus and local lesions on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. SMV-P1, P2 and P3 isolates differed from Swat isolates by producing mild mosaic on soybean cv. Weber-84. Isolate SMV-S1 produced severe mosaic, followed by severe mottling, necrosis and occasionally death of plants Weber-84 inoculated with serially diluted sap from infected soybean plants while SMV-P1 caused mild to moderate mosaic symptoms. The dilution end points of both isolates was 11512. Mean A405,,,,, ELISA values of SMV-S1, 52 and S3 was 1.919 and of SMV-P1, P2 and P3 was 1.377, respectively, after overnight incubation of antigen with substrate solution at 4°C. Among these isolates, SMV-S1 showed maximum A405,in values (1.987) followed by SMV-P1 (1.477), respectively.
  Mohammad Arif , Khair Mohammad Kakar , Riaz Ahmad and Shaukat Ali
  The effect of tillage operations, one plough (minimum tillage), two plough (conventional tillage) and four plough (maximum tillage) and seed rates, 75, 100, 125, 150 and 175 kg ha–1 on wheat were studied. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that different tillage operations had significantly affected tillers/m2, thousand grain weight, number of grains/spike and grain yield. Maximum tillers/m2 (305), thousand grain weight (43.2 g), number of grains/spike (57) and grain yield (6266 kg ha–1) were obtained from plots ploughed four times. Maximum tillers/m2 (324), grains per spike (59), thousand grain weight (42.9) and grain yield (6266 kg ha–1) were recorded at seed rate of 100 kg ha–1. Interaction between tillage practices and seed rate had a significant effect on tillers/m2, thousand grain weight, number of grains/spike and grain yield of wheat. As interaction between tillage operations and seed rates was significant therefore separate regressions were fitted to the data and xmax was calculated from the equation Y = a+bx+cx2 for each parameter and treatment as -b/2c.
  Mohammad Arif and Sher Hassan
  Pathogen-derived resistance strategies using coat proteins, movement proteins, non-structural proteins. replicases, antisense and satellite RNAs for the production of virus-resistant transgenic plants are briefly discussed. The concept of recombination of viral RNA with transgene products is critically analyzed and potential risks associated with commercialization of transgenic plants with viral inserts and its effects on bio-safety, are highlighted.
  Mohammad Arif
  Furoviruses possess divided positive-stranded RNA genome, separately encapsidated in rigid rod-shaped particles and transmitted by plasmodiophorid 'fungi' in soil. They have a wide host range and world wide distribution. Among ten furoviruses, SBWMV, OGSV, RSNV, SgCSV infect cereals, BNYVV, BSBV, PMTV infect root or tuber crops and BBNV, PCV and IPCV infect leguminous crops. This paper reviews the information on general characteristics, vector transmission and molecular pathology of furoviruses. However, transmission properties of other plant viruses with fungal vectors have also been summarized. The molecular based mechanism of virus transmission by fungal vector, for some better characterized furoviruses and role of readthrough protein and other genes in virus transmission process, have also been briefly discussed. The analysis of nucleotide sequences of SBWMV, BNYVV, PMTV, PCV and BSBV indicated heterogeneity among furoviruses and have at least three kinds of genome organization. However, read-through proteins (RT) are a common feature in furoviruses and are found in BNYVV, SBWMV, PMTV and BSBV. The BNYVV RT protein is involved in particle assembly and transmission of the virus by P. betae. Repeated manual transmission of BNYVV, SBWMV, PMTV results in spontaneous deletions of RT domain and lose the ability of transmission through vector. PMTV-S, a field isolate, was efficiently acquired and transmitted by a monofungal culture of S. subterranea whereas PMTV-T which has 543 nt deletion in the 3' half of the RT, could not be acquired and transmitted by the same fungus. The association of lack of transmissibility of PMTV-T with-in apparent deletion of sequence in RT, relative to RT of transmissible isolate PMTV-S suggests that the RT domain, encoded by PMTV-S RNA 3 contains determinants that play an important role in the acquisition and transmission of PMTV by S. subterranea.
The mechanism by which virus particles move into or out of protoplasm of zoospore, needs further investigation. However, the process by which aviruliferous zoospores acquire virus particles in vivo, has been proposed. Recent progress in molecular pathological strategies, to protect crop plants against furoviruses, has also been briefly discussed.
  Mohammad Arif , Muazam Stephen and Sher Hassan
  Soybean mosaic potyvirus (isolates S1 and P1) caused significant reduction in plant height, number of pods/plant, pod length, number of grains/pod and 100 grains weight in mechanically inoculated eight soybean varieties. The reduction in plant height of varieties Recondita, Ajmiri, Kingsay, Weber-84, Swat-84, Epps, Malakand-96 and Kharif-93 due to S1 isolate was 14.9, 15.2, 9.5, 11.0, 45.0, 14.5, 5.2 and 21.1 %, respectively. While in case of P1 isolate the reduction was 6.3, 29.5, 6.0, 47.6, 34.4, 26.2, 1.8 and 15.8 %, respectively. Analysis of variance of the yield components indicated that both isolates (S1 and P1) caused a significant reduction in pod length of all eight varieties. A –4.2 to 23 % reduction occurred in pod length due to S1, while –5 to 24 % reduction was observed in case of P1 isolate. Isolate S1 caused 1.5 to 68.6 % and P1 6.6 to 31.1 % reduction in number of pods per plant. SMV-S1 and P1 caused significant reduction in number of grains per pod. However, the percent reduction due to S1 was 4.8 to 24.7 %, while reduction due to P1 was 10.5 to 29.3 %, respectively. Both isolates affected the weight of grains significantly. The percent reduction was 5.3 to 21.7 and 7.3 to 20 due to SMV-S1 and P1 isolates, respectively.
  Fatma HUSSAIN , Mohammad ARIF and Munir AHMAD
  Aim: To determine the plasma prevalence and characteristics of diabetic retinopathy (DR) among Pakistani diabetic patients in the Faisalabad region. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major cause of avoidable blindness worldwide. People with DR are 25 times more likely to become blind than nondiabetics. Materials and methods: The incidence of retinopathy was determined in 1524 people with diabetes during April 2008 and January 2009. Physician-diagnosed diabetic patients underwent an eye examination by ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography. Participants were also interviewed and examined in order to determine demographic characteristics and medical history. Results: Of the 1524 patients screened, 183 (12%) had DR. Of these, 7% (106) had nonproliferative DR and 5% (77) had proliferative DR. Clinically significant macular edema was detected in 1.2% of patients. The prevalence of DR was higher in patients with type 1 diabetes than in those with type 2 diabetes. This difference was found to be statistically insignificant, however (P > 0.05). About 3% of the diabetic patients in our study had a family history of diabetes and only 6% had a history of regular eye examinations. Conclusion: This study demonstrated a high prevalence of DR in Faisalabad. An organized approach is needed to ensure adequate prevention and treatment in patients with diabetes.
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