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Articles by Mohammad Ashraf
Total Records ( 5 ) for Mohammad Ashraf
  Sarvat Nisar and Mohammad Ashraf
  Immature and developing seeds of Salvadora oleiodes (locally called Pelun) were collected in May/June and graded into small (S) and large (L) and either dried under the sun (sun-dried) or in the laboratory (shade-dried) upto 8±2 percent moisture content. When electrical conductance (E.C.) of leachates measured was taken as an index of membrane damage, leachates of seeds with testa ( intact`) exhibited lower E.C. values after 6 hours of imbibition than that of without testa ( naked`). Shade-dried (S) naked` seeds had lower E.C. values (30.9 μ S /cm/seed) than their intact` counterparts (61.84 μ S/cm/seed). When nature of molecules effluxed during the first 30 minutes of imbibition was determined, K ions were dominant inorganic species than Na ions, and with higher rates of leakage in sun-dried intact` seeds (12-77 ppm/seed) than the shade-dried (22-54 ppm/seed) ones. Na ions levels remained constant (14-15 ppm/seed) in shade-dried intact` seeds than the sun-dried ones (5-18.5 ppm/seed). When amino acids and total sugar contents were determined in naked` seeds, sun-dried seeds exhibited higher amino acids leached (5-15.8 μ moles/seed) than the shade-dried ones; 7-9.5 μmoles/seed in L` and 10-16.8 μmoles/seed in S` seeds. Soluble sugar contents in seeds of both the treatments varied in the range 18.75-33.7 μg/seed and were statistically insignificant to draw any conclusions between the two drying methods. It was also seen that the nature of the molecules effluxed was not correlated with the germination behaviour of seeds since only shade-dried ( S` and L`) seeds showed 100 per cent germination whilst sun-dried ( L`) had 40 per cent germination and immature as well as sun-dried ( S`) seeds did not germinate at all.
  Samia Rashid , Muhammad Farhan Qureshi and Mohammad Ashraf
  In the present studies, the biochemical analysis of Heliotropium crispum has been carried out and antibacterial activity of some of its extracts has been determined. Biochemical studies reveal that carbohydrates are present (on dry weight basis) in 2g per cent (1.2% reducing and 0.8% non-reducing sugars) and nitrogen contents are 1.14 per cent. Among minerals (ppm), Na (250), K (380), Ca (207), Mg (871), Cu (14.19), Zn (0.66), Mn (8.27) and Fe (3.81) was determined. Ethanolic, ether and aqueous plant extracts did not show antibacterial activity.
  Mohammad Ashraf , Nasim Akhtar , Firdous Tahira and Faiz-ul-Hassan Nasim
  Seeds of seven different cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum) were pre-imbibed in water or in 5, 10, 20% NaCl solutions for 2 days at room temperature. The effects of these pre-treatments on the percentage seed germination, seedling emergence and spread of emergence were observed. All viable seeds germinated within 48 hours under laboratory conditions. However. in pot experiments, first seedling emergence was recorded after 150 hours (6.25 days). Seed germination tests carried out in the laboratory reflected profiles similar to that in pot experiments. Water pre-treatment had no effect on the percentage seed emergence in pot experiments but decreased the spread of seedling emergence compared with that of control. NaCl treatment at 5 percent concentration had no effect on seedling emergence in pot experiments, less seeds germinated and emerged in 10 percent NaCl treatments compared with the 20 percent NaCl treatment or control seeds. Some cultivars were found to be less resistant to salt treatments than the others.
  Saeed Ahmed , Mohammad Ashraf , Abdul Jabbar , Khalid Hussain Janbaz , M. Shafiq Khan , Nisar-ur-Rahman and Munawar Hussain
  The present research demonstrates the biological activity of Dipterygium glaucum since extensive literature survey has shown no documented biological activity of this plant. Ethanol (80%) extract (A) of the plant was subfractioned by hexane (B), ethyl acetate (C) and butanol (D). These fractions (1 mg mL-1) of D. glaucum showed 45 to 100% phytotoxicity as determined by the inhibition of Lemna minor plant growth but showed no cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality assay. DPPH radical scavenging activity of fraction `A` was 87% whilst other fractions had antioxidant activity below 35%. When fraction `A` was tested for antispasmodic activity, spontaneous contractions were recorded at 0.1-3.0 mg mL-1 concentration in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations. It also inhibited K+ induced contractions to 60% at 1-3 mg mL-1 level, suggesting a calcium channel blockade activity. The n-hexane (B), ethyl acetate (C) and n-butanol (D) fractions exhibited no or little antibacterial, antifungal, antileishmanial and insecticidal activities as compared with their respective controls. This is the first report on the biological activity of D. glaucum.
  Samia Rashid , Mohammad Ashraf , Shahida Bibi and Rubeen Anjum
  Antibacterial and antifungal activities of some extracts of Launaea nudicaulis and L. resedifolia have been determined by standard methods. Methanol extract of L. nudicaulis and L. resedifolia showed 18.5 and 20.5 mm zones of inhibition against B. subtilis, respectively, as determined by disc diffusion method. Ethanol and DMSO extracts also exhibited antibacterial activities against E. coli and S. aureus but to lower degrees. When these activities were measured by well-method, all these extracts exhibited high activities against K. pneumoniae and low against E. coli compared with the control. Antifungal activity was determined by measuring the linear growth in slants on 4th day of incubation against an Aspergilus spp. Methanolic extracts of L. nudicaulis and L. resedifolia at 0.209 mg/ml levels exhibited 45±6 mm and 37±6 mm linear growth which decreased to 22±5 mm and 28±4 mm, respectively, at 0.838 mg/ml concentration.
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