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Articles by Mohamad SHATNAWI
Total Records ( 3 ) for Mohamad SHATNAWI
  Maher Obeidat , Mohamad Shatnawi , Mohammad Al-alawi , Enas Al-Zu`bi , Hanee Al-Dmoor , Maisa Al-Qudah , Jafar El-Qudah and Ismael Otri
  The effect of ethanol, methanol, acetone and water extracts of leaves of 11 plant species, used in the folk medicine, against six antibiotic resistant clinical pathogens was evaluated by the agar-well diffusion method. The obtained results indicate that most of the extracts revealed antimicrobial activity. The water extract of A. discoridis leaves exerted significant effect and recorded the lowest MIC and MMC. Ethanol leaf extraction method is the best. It produced broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity followed by methanol leaf extraction. Interestingly, methanol extraction method was found to be the most effective extraction method of anticandidal agents. Among the pathogenic bacteria tested, S. pneumonia was the least sensitive. Nevertheless, the anticandidal MIC and MMC values are higher than antibacterial values suggesting that C. albicans is less sensitive to plant leaf extracts. In conclusion, aqueous extracts of A. discoridis leaves exhibited the highest potency against all pathogens tested. Thus, this study confirms the efficacy of some plant extracts as natural antimicrobials and suggests the possibility of employing them in drugs for treatment of infectious diseases caused by the test pathogens.
  Mazen Ahmad ATEYYAT , Mohamad SHATNAWI and Mohammad AL- MAZRA`AWI
  Homopteran insects contain bacteria in their cells and tissues known as "secondary symbionts," which under special environmental circumstances act against their host insects. In this study, both molecular- and culture-based methods were used to characterize the bacteria associated with the whitefly in Jordan. We isolated, cultured, and identified 11 species of bacteria from nymphs (6 species), adults (8 species), and parasitized pupae (2 species) of the whitefly Bemesia tabaci collected from different vegetable crops planted in different localities in Jordan. The identities of the cultured bacteria were evaluated using PCR with sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Three gram-negative bacteria were identified as Erwinia persicinus, Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, and Pseudomonas putida. The identified gram-positive bacteria included Brevibacterium casei, Staphylococcus gallinarum, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis, Exiquobacterium acetylicum, Exiguobacterium undae, and Micrococcus caseolyticus.
  Mohamad SHATNAWI , Ghandi ANFOKA , Rida SHIBLI , Mohammed AL-MAZRA`AWI , Wesam SHAHROUR and Areej AREBIAT
  A protocol for production of virus-free Vitis vinifera using meristem culture was developed. Meristems (0.1−0.2 mm) of V. vinifera infected with grapevine fanleaf virus and grape leafroll associated viruses were excised from 1−year−old growing vines. Shoot tips were cultured on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, supplemented with 0.02 mg L-1 of benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.01 mg L-1 of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). BAP and kinetin resulted in differences in the number of new shoots per explant, shoot height, and number of new leaves per explant. BAP at 0.8 mg L-1 gave the highest in vitro multiplication rate, with 5.25 shoots per explant, whereas elongation was greatest in the presence of 0.2 mg L-1 of kinetin. Root initiation was tested on an MS medium supplemented with 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, or 1.0 mg L-1 of IBA (indole-3-butyric-acid), IAA (indole−3−acetic-acid), or NAA. Maximum root number was achieved using 0.6 mg L-1 of IBA. A survival rate of 95% was achieved when rooted explants were acclimatized ex vitro in a mixture of 1 soil: 1 perlite: 1 peat. Acclimatized plants grew in the greenhouse and were maintained as virus-free plants. Visual inspections as well as results of RT-PCR, using virus-specific oligonucleotide primers, showed that plants developed in vitro were free from grapevine fanleaf virus, grape leafroll associated virus-1, and grape leafroll associated virus-3 infections. Shoot tips from plantlets grown in vitro were cryopreserved by vitrification. Shoot tips were treated in a 2 mL cryotube filled with a solution of 5% (w/v) DMSO, 5% (w/v) glycerol, and 5% (w/v) sucrose at 25 °C for 20 min, then dehydrated with 1 mL of modified vitrification solution 2 (MPVS2) at 0 °C for 40 min. Maximum regrowth (55%) was obtained after cryogenic storage with cultures exposed to MPVS2 for 40 min at 0 °C. Cryopreserved shoot tips, after being warmed, resumed growth within 7 days and developed shoots directly without intermediate callus formation.
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