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Articles by Masood AKHTAR
Total Records ( 11 ) for Masood AKHTAR
  Masood Akhtar , C.S. Hayat , M. Ashfaque and Iftikhar Hussain
  Single radial hemolysis test for the detection of antibodies against Boophilus microplus was developed. Optimum test conditions were determined on the basis of clear hemolysis and maximum haemolytic zone diameter by using human, sheep and rabbit erythrocytes; complement dilutions and temperature. There was a non significant difference (P>0.05) in average haemolytic zone diameters among the erythrocytes of three species used but qualitative analysis indicated that human group "O" erythrocytes at the rate of 2 per cent in agar gel medium gave better results. A 1:2 dilution of complement in vernal buffer at the rate of 8 percent in agar gel medium was found to be optimally appropriate. The combination of over night refrigeration and subsequent incubation at 37 °C in a humid chamber for 8-12 hours gave good results regarding the quality of the zones of hemolysis which were well delineated.
  Zahida Tasawar , Salma Khurshid and Masood Akhtar
  One hundred and twenty mod fish, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton, 1822), were examined over a period of one year, Mard, 1998 to February, 1999 at Govt. Fish Hatchery Mian Channu Punjab, Pakistan. The parasites recovered were Lernea cyprinacea, L. polymorpa, L. oryzophila, L. lophiara and Lernaea sp. The overall prevalence was highest (43.33%) for L. cyprinacea and lowest for L. lophiara (4.16%).
  Masood Akhtar , Rehan Ahmed , C. S. Hayat , I. Hussain and M. Ashfaque
  Immune response of formalin inactivated and binnary ethyleneimine inactivated Angara disease (hydropericardium) vaccines were compared using indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. A four fold increase in IHA antibody titre was recorded with binnary ethyleneimine (BEI) inactivated vaccine. Agar gel diffusion test gave a strong precipitation line with serum of chicks vaccinated with BEI inactivated vaccine whereas a weak precipitation line was observed with serum from chicks vaccinated with formalin inactivated vaccine. The results of challenge test were promising and no adverse effects were seen in vaccinated chicks. BEI as inactivating agent produced antigenically superior vaccine.
  Masood Akhtar and C.S. Hayat
  Protein subunit (PS) and lipopolysaccharides complex subunit (LPCS) antigens were extracted from the in vitro cultured mid gut cells of Boophilus (B.) microplus. PS and LPCS vaccines with and without adjuvant was prepared and injected in buffaloes. Their efficacy was evaluated on the basis of cellular, humoral and challenge responses. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in cellular, humoral and challenge responses between the two subunit vaccines. The vaccines with adjuvant gave significantly higher cellular, humoral and challenge responses compared to those without adjuvant. The per cent protection and damage of B. microplus in PS vaccines with and without adjuvant was 75.79 and 61.56; and 44.56 and 42.78 per cent, respectively while in LPCS vaccines with and without adjuvant was 89.25 and 73.79; and 76.25 and 64.16 per cent, respectively. The results of the current study confirm the role of protein and carbohydrates as a protective antigen or as a factor for specificity of these antigen.
  Masood Akhtar and C.S. Hayat
  Optimum conditions for erythrocyte rosette formation (ERF) assay were determined to detect the cellular responses in immunized buffaloes against ticks. ERF with buffalo lymphocytes was maximum at 30°C for 30 minutes. The gentle handling of cell mixtures (lymphocytes and RBC) was recommended since binding forces between red cells and T-lymphocytes are week and easily disrupted. It was found that the buffalo lymphocytes did not bind to rabbit erythrocytes to form rosettes. The appearance of rosettes formed with sheep RBC was indistinguishable in appearance from rosettes formed with human erythrocytes. The percentage of E-rosettes formed with sheep RBC was slightly less (p>0.05) (mean 28.00±5.8, range 19- 38), than the percentage formed with human RBC (mean 31.90+7.7, range 17-45). The test was found to be quick, convenient and sensitive to detect the cellular responses in immunized buffaloes against ticks.
  Masood Akhtar , Sultan Ayaz , C.S. Hayat and M. Ashfaque
  Immune response of sonicated coccidiai oocyst was observed in chickens. Indirect haernagglutination (INA) test was developed for detecting antibodies to coccidia and serum antibody levels were measured against soluble oocyst (sporulated) antigen. IHA antibody titre was significantly higher (p<0.05), in chicks vaccinated with inactivated sonicated vaccines as compared to the chicks vaccinated with inactivated sporulated vaccine. The IHA antibody titre vaccinated with inactivated sonicated vaccine ranged from 1 : 64 to 1 : 1:512, among the 15 samples processed, 1:64 in two samples, 1:128 in four samples, 1: 256 in seven samples and 1: 512 in two samples. It gave 100 percent protection to the challenge chicks. Their faeces were normal and no clinical sign was recorded even 40 days post vaccination.
  Zahida Tasawar , Rabia Naseem and Masood Akhtar
  One hundred and twenty grass carp, Ctenopharyngadon idella, were examined over a period of one year from March 1998 to February 1999 at Government Fish Hatchery, Mian Channu, Punjab, Pakistan. Four species of copepod ectoparasites recovered were Lernaea (L.) polymorpha (Yu, 1938), L. cyprinacea (Linnaeus, 1761), L. lophiara (Harding, 1950) and L. ctenopharyngodonis. The parasitic infestation was low during the summer months when temperature ranged between 30-32°C and highest in winter months when temperature was between 13-23°C.
  Masood Akhtar , C.S. Hayat , M. Ashfaque , I. Hussain , Murad Ali Khan and Sultan Ayaz
  Delayed hypersensitivity reaction was used to measure the cell mediated immunity against avian coccidiosis. There was a gradual increase in the comb thickness of the immunized birds of all the groups from 24 to 72 hours after intradermal injection. The mean difference in comb thickness before and after injection of the respective antigen for the group immunized with Vaccine I (sonicated supernatant) was 1.87 mm at 24 hours, 2.23 mm at 36 hours, 2.31 mm at 48 hours and 2.42 mm at 72 hours. There was a significant difference (p<0.01) in comb thickness at 24 and 36 hours after intradermal injection. The mean difference in comb thickness before and after injection of the respective antigen for the group immunized with Vaccine II (sonicated sediment) was 1.12 mm at 24 hours, 1.75 mm at 36 hours, 2.10 mm at 48 hours and 2.31 mm at 72 hours. The difference was significant (p<0.01) at 24 and 48 hours; 36 and 72 hours after injection. Maximum difference in comb thickness was recorded 72 hours after injection in birds immunized with Vaccine I. It appears that delayed hypersensitivity response to sonicated supernatant antigen reported herein represent a strong CMI reaction. Delayed hypersensitivity comb reaction is a quick, simple, economical and practical tool to routinely determine the immune status of a bird with out restoring to challenge.
  Ali Afzal , M.S. Mahmood , Iftikhar Hussain and Masood Akhtar
  Milk is very valuable food, readily digested and absorbed. It consists of nutrients, which are needed for proper growth and maintenance of body. Milk and milk products form a significant part of the diet and a substantial amount of our food expenditures goes on milk and other dairy products. In Pakistan, milk is transported from the point of production to consumers and processing plants by middlemen called “Gawalas”. They don’t maintain proper hygienic conditions during this transport, which leads to increase the total viable bacterial count. They also adulterate milk to increase their profit margin by several chemicals like urea, starch, flour, cane sugar, vegetable oils, detergents etc. Various preservatives like formalin and some antibiotics are also added in milk to increase its shelf life. This addition decreases the nutritive value of milk. These adulterants, preservatives and drugs in milk cause very serious health related problems.
  Iftikhar HUSSAIN , Muhammad Imran ARSHAD , Muhammad Shahid MAHMOOD and Masood AKHTAR
  A total of 1500 serum samples were collected from cattle, buffaloes, and humans. The Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detected Brucella antibodies in 56 (10.18%) and 44 (8%) of the cattle, respectively. In samples collected from buffaloes 9.38% and 6.92% were positive, whereas 14% and 11% of the samples from humans were found to be positive by RBPT and ELISA, respectively. Among village workers a higher prevalence of brucellosis was recorded in females than in males. Abattoir-associated personnel also had a higher incidence of brucellosis. Results of the present study revealed that RBPT and ELISA can be used efficiently for mass screening of Brucella antibodies in both humans and animals, and that people that worked with animals had a higher incidence of brucellosis, indicating that they might have been infected by contact with infected animals and might act as carriers.
  Masood AKHTAR , M. Abdul HAFEEZ , Faqir MUHAMMAD , Ahsan ul HAQ and M. Irfan ANWAR
  Present paper reports the effects of sugar cane juice (SCJ) on immune responses and its protection against Eimeria (mixed species) infections in broiler chickens. Experiment 1 was conducted to test the dose efficacy of SCJ and its effects on chickens against coccidiosis. Maximum weight gain per day was recorded in chickens given SCJ @ 400 mg/kg body weight. Significantly (P < 0.01) low mortality and increased body weight gain per day were recorded in chickens administered SCJ orally and challenged with mixed species of genus Eimeria. Furthermore, mild hemorrhages, lower lesion scores (+1), and significantly lower number of oocysts shed in faeces were recorded in immunized chickens compared to control. Experiment 2 was carried out to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of SCJ on cellular and humoral responses. Highest antibody titres (1:1024-1:16; GMT 367.28) were recorded in chickens administered SCJ @ 400 mg/kg body weight in comparison with control (1:16-1:2; GMT 2.82). To demonstrate the cell mediated immunity (CMI), amplitude of toe-web swelling 72 h post avian tuberculin injection was recorded in the experimental and control groups. Maximum swelling (8.13 ± 0.21 mm) was recorded in the experimental group as compared to control (1.04 ± 0.10); indicating higher cell mediated immune response. From these results it was concluded that SCJ elicit a significantly higher cellular and humoral responses compared to control, which may provide protection against Eimeria infections (mixed species) in chickens.
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