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Articles by Mairizal
Total Records ( 3 ) for Mairizal
  Mairizal , Yetti Marlida , Mirzah and Fahmida Manin
  Background and Objective: Mannanase is a mannan-degrading enzyme that can be produced by microorganisms such as bacteria. Mannanase is widely used in the animal feed industry with the aim of improving the quality of feed ingredients containing high levels of mannan, such as palm kernel meal. This study aimed to isolate, characterize and produce mannanase from bacteria found in the hindgut of termites. Materials and Methods: Bacteria were isolated by culturing on solid media containing 0.5% locust bean gum for 24 h at 30°C. The mannanolytic index was then measured by the addition of 2% congo red, which was then washed with 1 M NaCl. Mannanase activity was measured by the dinitrosalicylic acid method, while the protein content was measured by the Bradford method. Results: A total of 8 isolates were obtained. The 3 isolates with the highest mannanolytic indices were selected (isolates V9, AZ and AD). Isolate V9 exhibited the highest mannanase activity of 29.50 U mL–1 after 88 h of incubation with a specific activity of 110.32 U mg–1. The activity of the mannanase was optimal at pH 8 and at an incubation temperature of 50°C. Based on 16S-DNA analysis, isolate V9 was identified as Bacillus cereus. Conclusion: Bacillus cereus, which is isolated from the hindgut of termites, has fairly high mannanase activity and has the potential to hydrolyse mannan in feed ingredients such as palm kernel meal.
  Mairizal , Fahmida Manin and Ella Hendalia
  Background and Objective: Palm kernel meal is a byproduct of processing palm oil that can be used as animal feed. Palm kernel meal contains mannan in sufficiently high quantities that its use is limited to poultry. Enzymatic hydrolysis of palm kernel cake with the enzyme mannanase produces mannose and mannooligosaccharides (MOS), which can act as prebiotics. Prebiotics are used for the growth of probiotic microbes in the digestive tract of broilers. Probiotics are living microorganisms that are given in sufficient quantities and provide beneficial effects to the health of livestock while being able to increase livestock production. This study aimed to examine the effect of probiotics and palm kernel meal hydrolyzed with mannanase enzymes on broiler growth performance. Materials and Methods: This study used a completely randomized 3×6 factorial design with 3 replicates. The first factor was 3 doses of probiotics through the drinking water (0, 1 and 2%) and the second factor was 6 ration levels of palm kernel cake after hydrolysis with mannanase enzymes (0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%). The variables observed included feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and mortality. Results: The supply of up to 30% palm kernel meal after enzymatic hydrolysis in broiler rations did not significantly influence (p>0.05) feed consumption, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. Probiotic administration to the level of 2% through the drinking water also showed no significant effect (p>0.05) on feed consumption, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio but showed a significant effect (p<0.05) on mortality. The provision of 1 and 2% probiotics can reduce mortality compared to feed without probiotics. The interaction between the administration of palm kernel meal after enzyme hydrolysis and the administration of probiotics showed no significant effect (p>0.05) on all the observed parameters. Conclusion: Based on these results, it can be concluded that the administration of up to 30% palm kernel meal after enzyme hydrolysis has no negative effects in broiler rations. Probiotic administration to the level of 2% also had no negative effects on broiler growth performance and did not reduce survival. There was no interaction between the palm kernel meal and probiotics on broiler growth performance.
  Yeni Elijayanti , Mairizal , Adriani and Yurleni

Background and Objective: Palm fronds and rice straw are agricultural wastes that have the potential to be utilized as feed for ruminants but have low quality. The high fraction of crude fibre of palm fronds and rice straw, namely, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, causes their use as feed to be limited. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the quality through fermentation that involves such microorganisms as the bacteria found in probiotics. Probiotics containing cellulolytic, mannanolytic and lactic acid bacteria represent a notable opportunity to improve the quality of feed ingredients. This study aimed to determine the nutritional contents of palm fronds and rice straw fermented with probiotics containing cellulolytic, mannanolytic and lactic acid bacteria. Materials and Methods: This study employed a completely randomized design with a 3×3 factorial pattern and with 4 replicates. Factor A is the percentage of probiotics, namely, A1 = 0%, A2 = 2% and A3 = 4% and factor B is the waste used, namely, B1 = palm frond B2 = rice straw and B3 = 50% palm frond + 50% rice straw. Results: The results showed that there was an interaction between the provision of probiotics and agricultural waste (palm fronds and rice straw). The interaction between the provision of 4% probiotics with the combination of palm fronds and rice straw (A3B3) showed that the contents of crude protein, crude fat, phosphorus and NDF were better than for the other combinations. As much as 4% of probiotics in rice straw showed the best contents of calcium, crude fibre, ADF and cellulose. The interaction between 2% probiotics and rice straw (A2B2) exhibited the best lignin content. The fermentation treatment using probiotics produced a positive response in reducing the fibre fraction. Conclusion: The provision of 4% probiotics in the combination of palm fronds and rice straw demonstrated an increase in quality values.

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