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Articles by M.Z. Alam
Total Records ( 12 ) for M.Z. Alam
  K.U. Ahmed , M.M. Rahman , M.Z. Alam , M.M. Hossain and M.G. Miah
  The study on host preference of Batocera rufomaculata De Geer is of great interest, because it is a polyphagous pest and preferred middle aged jackfruit trees. In this study the incidence of Batocera rufomaculata De Geer in relation to different age groups of Jackfruit trees was evaluated. The investigation was done in Gazipur, Gaibandha and Khagrachhari districts of Bangladesh. Host preference of Batocera rufomaculata De Geer among five age groups (<10, 10-20, 21-30, 31-40 and >40 years) of jackfruit trees was conducted during 2009-2011 in farmers’ orchards. For different age groups were considered as treatments and the three districts were considered as replications. The trunk infestation was the highest (45.87%) in Gazipur for age group 10-20 years which was statistically identical (45.06%) with age group 21-30 years. The lowest infestation was 21.38% for the age group of above 40 years. However, between other two districts the infestation was the highest (27.97%) in Gaibandha in 10-20 years age group which is statistically similar (26.65%) with 21-30 years age group. The lowest infestation was found in below 10 years group (3.81%). In Khagrachhari where the highest infestation was 27.16% in 21-30 years age group and the lowest (17.06%) was in age group below 10 years. The order of host age preference was 10-20>21-30>31-40>below 10 and >above 40 years.
  M.Z. Alam , T. Stuchbury , R.E.L. Naylor and M.A. Rashid
  Ten rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) were tested for their salt tolerance at three levels of salinity, 4.5, 8.5 and 12.5 dS m-1 electrical conductivity (EC) and tap water as control. A 4x10 factorial experiment in split-plot design was used with three replications. Data taken 6 weeks after salt application were reported. Severe effects of salt on rice plant growth were seen even at 4.5 dSm-1. Growth was arrested immediately after application of 12.5 dS m-1 salt but not in other lower salt treatments (8.5 and 4.5 dS m-1). However, with time, salt injury symptoms were clearly visible in all plants growing in all levels of salt and showing different symptoms. The degree of injury was greater in the highest salt concentration (12.5 dS m-1). The symptoms appeared mostly in older leaves and the upper portion of the leaves rolled in and withered away. The emerging leaf blades were tightly rolled; the tips were severely withered and necrotic. However, the younger leaves of the affected plant remained succulent and looked darker green. The affected plants looked stunted and most of the young tillers gradually died. Salt injury symptoms varied with concentration of salt and between cultivars. The relative salt sensitivity of cultivars was not consistent across salt levels indicating cultivar differences in threshold levels of salt tolerance. All plant parameters decreased significantly in all cultivars with increasing salinity. However, leaf area, shoot and root fresh weight were relatively more affected and the magnitude of reduction varied between cultivars. Limited differences between cultivars for salt tolerance were seen during vegetative growth. An index combining all plant parameters measured, suggested that V2, V3, V5 and BR23 were relatively tolerant of salinity than others. Neither reduced photosynthetic capacity nor reduced turgor appeared to be the major reason for the reduced growth. Rather, reduced growth may be the result of disturbed mineral nutrition. There was no correlation between sensitivity at germination and later growth stages. The results suggested that screening of rice cultivars for salt tolerance should be at salt sensitive stages.
  M.N. Bari , M.Z. Alam , S.A. Muyibi , P. Jamal and A.A. Mamun
  An investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of different particle size of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) and their distribution as new substrate for the production of citric acid through Solid State Bioconversion (SSB) in laboratory scale by Aspergillus niger. The experiment was carried out to observe the productivity of citric acid with different particle size of EFB in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks. The result obtained through this study showed that the 0.5 mm down graded particle of EFB gave the highest production of citric acid compared to other particle size. The maximum production of citric acid of 131.3 g kg-1-EFB with the production rate of 16.4 g kg-1-day was obtained from EFB with particle size of 0.5 mm after 8 days of bioconversion. Furthermore, the results of particle size distribution show that the well-graded particle size of EFB produced the highest citric acid compared to uniformly-graded and gap-graded particle.
  A.A. Mamun , F.R. Ma`an , A.K. Zahirah , M.A. Yehya , A.R.S. Mohammed , M.Z. Alam , S.A. Muyibi , I.A. Faris and I. Azni
  Contamination of water due to arsenic (As) is increasing in many parts of the world. The removal of As from aqueous solution by using impregnated carbon nanofibres (CNFs) as the adsorbent is reported in this paper. The effects of pH, CNFs dosage, contact time and initial concentration of arsenic were studied at room temperature (±25°C). The interactions among the parameters were also investigated. The data obtained from the adsorption experiment were analysed using statistical software in order to develop a regression equation to represent the optimum operating conditions. The interactions of each parameters were considered during this analysis and the result indicated that the highest removal (97.25%) of As can be attained at pH 6, initial concentration of arsenic of 0.08 mg L-1, contact time of 60 min and CNF dosage of 200 mg L-1. Comparison between impregnated CNF and Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) were also done and it is determined that impregnated CNF has better removal compared to PAC alone. The final concentration of As after the treatment using CNFs was about 8 ~ 10 times less than that of using PAC. Therefore, it can be concluded that CNFs are highly potential for the adsorption of As from water.
  M.M. Rashid , M. Mofazzel Hossain , M.Z. Alam , M. Ibrahim and M.K.A. Bhuiyan
  Experiments on seasonal abundance of spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus on guava and its control were conducted. The seasonal distribution of spiraling whitefly indicated that winter months December, January and February were major peak period of infestation. Adult whitefly started to infest the guava plants in September and increased to maximum in January. Whitefly infestation decreased to zero from April and continued to August. The change in the level of infestation was due to difference in environmental temperature and rainfall. Field trials were conducted to test the efficacy of some common insecticides against the whitefly. Although all the chemicals reduced the population of different stages of whitefly, the overall effect was found to be better with systemic insecticides. Dimethoate was found most effective in controlling spiralling whitefly of guava followed by spray treatment with, phosphamidon, cypermethrin, malathinon. Diclorvos was comparatively less effective insecticide. Study on biological control of whitefly showed that a coccinelid predator Axinocymnus puttarudriahi Kapur and Manshi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was effective in controling the whitefly without associated ant.
  M.Z. Alam , M.A. Manchur and M.N. Anwar
  A Streptomyces strain A2 which was provisionally identified as Streptomyces omiyaensis, isolated from goat`s rumen was found capable of producing cellulolytic enzymes during growth on different cellulosic substrates. The isolate A2 grown under different conditions showed that CMC was the best cellulosic substrates for inducing the synthesis of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes. The isolate also showed heavy growth and liquefaction at pH 6.5, temperature 35 to 40°C and 5 days of incubation period during growth in liquid Winsted`s media having 1.2% CMC as a cellulose substrate. Maximum level of CMC-ase (230.56 U mL-1) in liquid media was found to produce when beef extract used as a nitrogen source along with CMC as cellulose source. Maximum level of reducing sugar (473.33 μg mL-1) and protein (324.27 μg mL-1) was obtained when CMC used as a growth substrate. The crude enzyme of the isolate was found to show highest enzyme activity (CMC-ase of 269.44 U mL-1, FP-ase of 64.81 U mL-1, Avicelase of 200 U mL-1 and β-Glucosidase of 138.89 U mL-1) at pH 6.5 and temperature 45°C during enzyme substrate reaction. The molecular weight of enzyme of the isolate Streptomyces omiyaensis was determined by SDS-PAGE technique and found 85 kDa.
  K.U. Ahmed , M.M. Rahman , M.Z. Alam , M.M. Hossain and M.G. Miah
  The study of seasonal influence on incidence of trunk borer infestation was undertaken during 2010 at Kapasia upazila under district of Gazipur, Bangladesh. The borer was found in orchard from June to September with a peak emergence in mid July. The larval population of Jackfruit trunk borer is the destructive pest stage, which evokes concern in jackfruit growing areas of Bangladesh. The highest percentage of infestation was in July (7.33%) followed by June and August (6.00%). The cumulative infestation over the year in the study area was 35.33% in October. The lowest infestation was observed in February (0.67%) whereas no activity was found during November to January. The incidence of infestation of trunk borer was influenced by temperature, rainfall and relative humidity due to seasonal variations and their contribution of the regression (R2) were 63, 65 and 31%, respectively. Five independent weather factors in stepwise regression equation pooled responsible for 67.4% of the total variance. Stepwise regression showed that maximum temperature was the most important to influence 35.3% and the influence was lowest (2.1%) in case of average rainfall.
  M.Z. Alam , M.S. Rahman , M.E. Haque , M.S. Hossain , M.A.K. Azad and M.R.H. Khan
  The study was conducted to investigated the effect of irrigation and irrigation on growth and yield of wheat (cv. Kanchan). The results revealed that both the irrigation and nitrogen gave significant (p<0.05) effect on all studied growth parameters such as plant height (90.09 and 90.42 cm), number of tillers plant-1 (3.21 and 3.20), leaf area index (LAI) (1.37, 1.55 at 60 DAS and 3.73, 4.77 at 75 DAS), crop growth rate (CGR) (282.10, 333.13 mg day-1 plant-1 at 60-75 DAS and 158.99, 177.35 mg day-1 plant-1 at 75-90 DAS) and relative growth rate (RGR) (0.108, 0.1098 mg mg-1 day-1 at 60-75 DAS and 0.021, 0.022 mg mg-1 day-1 at 75-90 DAS). Among the yield contributing characters the number of effective tillers plant 1 (2.89 and 2.92), number of non effective tillers plant-1 (0.52 and 0.67), number of non-fertile spikelets spike-1 (2.44 and 2.51), grain yield (2.69 and 2.50 t ha-1) and harvest index (46.55 and 45.25%) were significantly influenced by irrigation as well as nitrogen level. The increments of grain yield mainly due to increase in number of effective tillers plant-1.
  M.Z. Alam , T. Stuchbury and R.E.L. Naylor
  The effect of reduced osmotic potentials on germination and early seedling growth of four rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance were studied using iso-osmotic solutions (0, -0.232, -0.457, -0.677, -0.906 and -1.129 MPa) of NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG 4000). Seed germination and early seedling growth were assessed using four replicates of 25 seeds at 21±10C in the dark using paper towel method. Onset of germination, germination rate and seedling growth, all declined with increasing concentrations of both NaCl and PEG, the former being more inhibitory. Germination and growth processes were mainly affected at and above -0.457 MPa osmotic potential in both NaCl and PEG. Rice cultivars differed greatly in their tolerance to salt and water stress. However, the differences were well pronounced in NaCl but less so in PEG. The imposition of water stress by PEG for 9 days did not permanently inhibit germination or induce dormancy. However, salt stress appeared to be lethal than the equivalent osmotic potentials of PEG. Salt tolerant cultivars (V2 and BR23) performed consistently better under salt stress and consistently poor under osmotic stress compared with salt sensitive cultivars (V1 and IR8). These results suggested that the salt tolerance of rice cultivars is probably determined by their ability to withstand excessive Na+ and Cl‾ ions rather than their ability of water stress tolerance.
  M.Z. Alam , M. Ahmed , M.S. Alam , M.E. Haque and M.S. Hossin
  The experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of (a) three seedling ages viz. 21, 28 and 35 days and (b) four seedling raising techniques viz. normal wet, modified wet, floating and modified dapog on the yield and yield components of transplant aman rice cv. Binadhan 4. Except the number of non-effective tillers hill-1, weight of 1000-grains, harvest index and other characters were significantly influenced by both seedling ages and seedling raising techniques. Besides these, straw and biological yield showed non significant results in respect of seedling ages. The interaction between seedling ages and seedling raising techniques had significant effect on number of total tillers hill-1, number of effective tillers hill-1, grain, straw and biological yield.
  M.Z. Alam , T. Stuchbury , R.E.L. Naylor and M.A. Rashid
  Water uptake and pattern of germination of two rice cultivars differing in seed size were determined in iso-osmotic solutions of NaCl and polyethelene glycol, different concentrations of CaCl2 and combinations of NaCl and CaCl2. The results demonstrated that full imbibition of rice seeds occurred at around 30% moisture content (mc) and the critical mc for germination was around 25-30%. Although rates of water uptake in rice seeds were reduced with increasing salinity, rice seeds attained full imbibition by 48 h up to 150 mM salinity and reached at least critical mc by 72 h up to 250 mM salinity. Water uptakes in NaCl solutions were greater than in iso-osmotic solutions of PEG and rice seeds did not attain even critical mc in PEG solutions lower than -0.232 MPa even after 72 h. When Ca was added in combination with NaCl, water uptake in rice seeds increased. Water uptake in smaller seed was less during the first 12 h of imbibition than larger seeds. However, equilibrium mc was attained within 48 h in both large and small seed. The onset of germination declined with increasing concentrations of NaCl and in iso-osmotic solutions of PEG, particularly below-0.457 MPa osmotic potential. Large and small grain rice seed differed significantly in their response to salt and osmotic stress. Supplemental Ca (3 to 9 mM) significantly increased germination percentage compared to no Ca salt stress. Three mM Ca completely offset the deleterious effects of 150 mM NaCl and 6 mM Ca partially offset the deleterious effects of 225 mM NaCl on rice seed germination. Nine mM Ca significantly increased germination in large seed cultivar but not in the small grain cultivar compared to 6 mM Ca.
  M.M. Manzoor , M.Z. Alam , Z.I. Chauhan , S.A.H. Gilani , S.T.H. Shah , A. Ali and J. Muhammad
  The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of poultry byproducts meal (PBM) on the performance of broiler chicks. One hundred and fifty day old (male and female mixed) Hubbard broiler chicks were reared on the five experimental rations up to 42 days of age using control rations containing 8% fish meal. In the experimental rations both in starter and finisher fish meal was replaced by the poultry byproducts meal (PBM) at 2, 4, 6 and 8% levels keeping control rations without PBM. The starter rations were fed up to 28 days of age and remaining 14 days the finisher rations were fed. The crude protein (%) and metabolized energy (Kcal/Kg) content of the starter rations A, B, C, D and E were 21.52, 2937; 21.71, 2916; 21.89, 2983; 22.0, 83007 and 22.29, 3032, respectively, while for finisher rations were 18.73, 3042; 18.92, 3070; 19.10, 3097; 19.29, 3125 and 19.47, 3152.28, respectively. The result showed that the rations containing PBM at the level of 2, 4 and 6% were the best for growth as compared to 8% consumed. There was a non-significant (p<0.05) difference in feed efficiency among different rations. The varying level of PBM used in rations did not significantly (p<0.05) influence the dressing percentage of broiler chicks. It was also concluded that PBM can be used in broiler rations up to 8% of the total diet. It is concluded that PBM supplemented with amino acids may be suggested to be suitable and replace with fish meal in poultry diet.
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