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Articles by M.S. Bhuyan
Total Records ( 10 ) for M.S. Bhuyan
  Md. Naim Uddin , Md. Shabiul Islam , Jahariah Sampe , M.S. Bhuyan and Sawal H. Md. Ali
  Background: Ambient vibration energy can be converted into electrical energy in an energy harvester system by using three mechanisms; piezoelectric, electrostatic and electromagnetic. Among three mechanisms, piezoelectric mechanism is most efficient. In this mechanism, mechanical stress and strain generation of piezoelectric materials can be converted into electrical energy by ambient vibration energy for low power electronic system. To implement a piezoelectric energy harvester system from ambient vibration, a lower range of frequency will be chosen. To achieve the lower resonant frequency and higher stress of energy harvester, a cantilever beam is suitable because of its least stiff structure. Materials and Methods: The structural properties of a T-shape piezoelectric cantilever beam was analysed for piezoelectric energy harvesting mechanism. The 3-D geometry of the beam has been design using solid works. After that the simulation of the T-shaped piezoelectric cantilever beam has been performed by using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in COMSOL multiphysics. In FEA simulation, the volume of the beam was considered 24.566×10–3 cm3 under a vibration source of 0.5 g acceleration. Results: As a result, the beam was resonated at a frequency of 229.25 Hz. During resonance, free end of the beam has displaced the maximum 2.77 mm with RMS velocity of 3.29 m sec–1. Finally, maximum stress of 2.39×108 N m–2 has found near the fixed end of the beam. Conclusion: This designed and analysed T-shaped piezoelectric cantilever beam will be suitable for scavenging and converting ambient low vibration energy into electrical energy for biomedical devices. The shape of the cantilever beam was designed as T-shape. In the design, complexity of the beam was reduced and no proof mass was used at the free end of the beam. After the analysis of the beam, a lower resonant frequency of 229.25 Hz was achieved compared to past researchers studies.
  M.S. Bhuyan , Masuri Othman , Sawal Hamid Md Ali , Burhanuddin Yeop Majlis and Md. Shabiul Islam
  Exponential progress in Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) miniaturization feasibility and ultra-low-power electronics to date, micro sensors require so small energy that may be simply harvested from sensors ambient environment. To power-up sensors, batteries and chemical fuel sources may be considered. However, it is impractical to power-up automotive sensors through wired means because they derive their self-worth through their distribution and mobility. Moreover, if battery is used, questions of lifetime, design complexity, costs etc arise. The key objective of our research was to design and fabricate a micro piezoelectric energy harvester for converting low-frequency vibrations into electrical power. In this review paper, we have investigated most recent micro piezoelectric harvesters at depth, with focus on design structure and output characteristics. Contrary to designs that follow cantilever structure to use the bending strain on the piezoelectric beam, a novel design is required to be investigated as sensors power source instead of conventional batteries. As in automotive ambient environment, energy harvesting device will be in direct contact with driving force and ambient acceleration amplitudes will be large enough for previously reported cantilever based design. In this regards, this research will explore new geometries to utilize tensile stress/strain on piezoelectric film instead of cantilever bending strain. The harvester will be modeled in CoventorWare. To realize an efficient autonomous energy harvesting platform, it is also necessary to integrate ultra-low-power electronic circuitry with harvesting device. The electrical schematic will be simulated in Cadence Virtuoso Spectre. A short discussion on energy harvester under development followed by research methodology is presented.
  M.S. Bhuyan , B.Y. Majlis , M. Othman , Sawal H. Md Ali , C. Kalaivani and Shabiul Islam
  Dependency on battery as the only power source is putting an enormous burden in many applications due to size, weight, safety and lifetime constraints etc. Emerging applications like wireless sensor networks, implantable medical devices, heating ventilation and air conditioning system for indoor and automotive environmental comfort are examples of such class. In addition, it is often impractical to operate these systems using battery owing to the difficulty in replacing battery. Therefore, the ability to harvest ambient energy is vital for battery less operation. In this study, novel modeling of a micro energy harvester aimed at harvesting energy from fluid-flow induced vibration, through piezoceramic cantilever means is presented. The strategy pursued in order to harvest energy in low fluid-flow conditions, couples vortex shedding from a D-shaped bluff-body to a piezoelectric cantilever attached to the bluff-body. Fluidic pressure impulse on piezoelectric cantilever beam due to vortex shedding results in lift force. Fluctuation of fluidic pressure causes flexible cantilever to vibrate in the direction normal to fluid flow. Deformation of the piezoceramic cantilever converts mechanical energy into electrical energy through its crystalline structure. COMSOL-multiphysics simulations and results are presented in details to demonstrate the feasibility of the harvester in low fluid-flow velocities conditions ranging 1-5 m sec-1. In a (200x150x150) μm3 rectangular duct, at 5 m sec-1 fluid velocity, the (50x40x2) μm3 piezoelectric cantilever experienced concluding statement concluding statement 3088 Pa stress. The resulting cantilever deflection produced 2.9 mv, which is sufficient to drive an ultra-low-power rectifier circuit. This harvester is designed as a useful power source to replace or supplement batteries.
  Mohammad Zayed Ahmed , M.S. Bhuyan , A.K.M. Tariqul Islam and B.Y. Majlis
  This study presents the fabrication of a 3D micro-transformer using MEMS technology in 10-600 kHz frequency range. The fabrication processes is developed for high-performance and low-cost realization with respect to planner design. The coil winding and the magnetic cores were fabricated by electro-deposition using copper and Ni/Fe Permalloy materials, respectively. In step-up configuration, the micro-transformer achieved 73.75% efficiency. The inductance achieved was 90 and 164 μH for primary and secondary coils, respectively. Characterization results and fabrication process of the fabricated transformer (2560x1240 μm) on alumina ceramic substrate are presented.
  Md. Naim Uddin , Md. Shabiul Islam , Jahariah Sampe and M.S. Bhuyan
  Low power micro/nano devices are tremendously used in our daily life. Battery is a traditional energy source for portable or wearable devices and remote system application. But it has limited lifetime, bulky size and harmful during disposal to the environment. Ambient vibration energy can be considered for small-scale application and converted into electrical energy using three mechanisms: Piezoelectric, electrostatic and electromagnetic. In this study, piezoelectric mechanism will be used to develop a piezoelectric cantilever with a proof mass on its free-end to reduce resonant frequency. An ambient fluid flow energy will be applied to generate vibration of the cantilever. An analytical model will be developed to get an optimised geometrical dimensions of the cantilever which will be designed using SolidWorks. A bluff body will be placed in front of the piezoelectric cantilever with the integration of electronic circuits in a micro-channel where ambient fluid will get barrier due to the bluff body. As a result, turbulence will be created to displace the free-end and then generate vibration of the cantilever. The simulation of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) on the piezoelectric cantilever in CoventorWare will be carried out the modules of fluid dynamics, structural vibration and electrical response. The simulated results can be obtained such as stress, strain, resonant frequency, displacement, voltage and power output. A voltage output is expected from 2.9-4.5 mV at the wind speed of 2-5 m sec–1 from the developed piezoelectric energy harvester system. The achievement of the voltage can be used to drive an ultra-low power micro generator circuits.
  Md. Shabiul Islam , M.S. Bhuyan and Sawal H. Md. Ali
  This study describes a FPGA realization of a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) algorithm for designing a Wheelchair Controller (WC). The controller enables the movement of wheelchair and makes brake in an unstructured environment by the WC sensor to avoid any encountered obstacles. The WC is found to be able to react to the environment appropriately during its navigation to avoid crashing with obstacles by turning to the proper angle while moving. To design the controller unit, a speed sensor and a distance sensor, etc. are placed in front of the wheelchair for its functionality. The numerous data is used to evaluate the algorithm which control an output signal for the brake-power using by the input signals of speed sensor and distance sensor. The FLC has proven a commendable solution in dealing with certain control problems when the situation is ambiguous. One of the main difficulties faced by conventional control systems is the inability to operate in a condition with incomplete and imprecise information. As the complexity of a situation increases, a traditional mathematical model will be difficult to implement. Fuzzy logic is a tool for modeling uncertain systems by facilitating common sense reasoning in decision-making in the absence of complete and precise information. In this study, the WC is designed based on the theories of fuzzy logic (such as fuzzifier, fuzzy rule base, inference mechanism and defuzzifier) and then simulated in MATLAB platform. The designed codes of WC also have written in VHDL language for implementing the hardware blocks of the separate modules of the WC. The verified VHDL code of the WC has been synthesized using Quartus II tool in Altera environment. Finally, the hardware designed codes have downloaded into FPGA board (APEX 20K200EF484) for the circuit’s functionality verification. From the timing analyzer report during implementation into FPGA board, it is observed that the longest delay from the source pin “sel3” to destination pin “LED7SEG1” is 24.019 nsec. Hence, the maximum clock speed (fmax) of the wheelchair is 41.63 MHz. During the experiment, researchers have set the hardware working frequency in 40 MHz to be confirmed the reliability in working condition.
  M.S. Bhuyan , B.Y. Majlis , M. Othman , Sawal H. Md. Ali and Shabiul Islam
  This study presents multi-physics three-dimensional finite element simulation of a fluid flow based self-excited micro energy harvester. This micro energy harvester is modeled inside a micro fluid channel to convert fluid flow energy into fluid oscillations. Investigations are carried out for the impact of low fluid flow velocity ranging 1-5 m sec-1, associated voltage generation by piezoelectric means and various mechanical analyses to enhance the performance and robust design considerations. The piezoelectric micro cantilever is attached to a D-shaped bluff body. An axial fluid flow and the D-shaped bluff body interaction generate Karman Vortex Street in the wake of the bluff-body. Vortex shedding causes an asymmetry in pressure distribution on the surface of the bluff body which results in time-dependent forces acting on the attached flexible micro cantilever. Due to structural vibrations induced by the uniform and steady fluid flow, periodic strains are generated in the piezoelectric cantilever which converts the strain energy into electrical charge. Finite Element Analysis Software namely COMSOL Multiphysics are used for the Harvester Model and simulation. In a 200x150x150 μm3 rectangular duct, at 5 m sec-1 fluid velocity, the 50x40x2 μm3 piezoelectric cantilever experienced 3088 Pa stress with cantilever tip displacement around 60 μm. A maximum voltage of 2.9 mV was recorded at 5 m sec-1 fluid velocity that is sufficient to drive an ultra-low-power rectifier circuit for a complete energy harvesting system. This study in detail describes the harvester device modeling and finite element analysis in COMSOL. Instead of using ambient parasitic vibration, this Energy Harvester Model directly utilize fluid flow energy to improve harvesting capability. The micro energy harvester self-charging capability makes it possible to develop untethered sensor nodes that do not require any wired connection or battery replacement or supplement batteries. Integration of fluid flow based micro energy harvester device for the autonomous sensor network such as automotive temperature and humidity sensor networks.
  Y.T. Tan , M.S. Bhuyan , Sawal H. Md. Ali and Md. Shabiul Islam
  The study describes the implementation of a fuzzy expert system based fault diagnostic system. The system is implemented into a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip for fast design cycle. Real time faults diagnosis of manufacturing machinery equipment through software approach lacks in processing speed and slow interfacing with physical hardware. To overcome this increasing complexity of contemporary industrial processes and a wide range of hazards, a flexible, easy and shorter development time of intelligent fault diagnosis system is reuired. Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) is employed to process imprecise and uncertain system inputs. Highly parallelism execution into FPGA enhances the processing speed of fault diagnosis system and enabling the interfacing with hardware in real-time manner. Most of the synthesization tools are unable to simplify division operator and resulted in error in the synthesization of the system. Therefore, a division module is designed to enable the synthesization. The algorithm is based on repetitive substitution and bit shifting operations. Hardware implementation of the system into FPGA board enabled shorter time to design for both fault diagnostic system and manufacturing equipment. The results showed that the proposed FPGA performance required only 176 nsec of execution time for operating clock frequency of 50 MHz and 7594 logic elements into FPGA. This expert system aims to reduce the downtime for faulty manufacturing equipment and standardize the fault diagnostic procedures. The hardware implementation of fault diagnostic expert system into FPGA board brings advantages in ease of variability in the system and high speed processing due to hardware data parallelism.
  M.S. Bhuyan , Sawal H. Md. Ali , M. Othman , B.Y. Majlis , Shafii A. Wahab and Shabiul Islam
  The study presented in this research targets the modeling and analysis of a 31 transverse mode type piezoelectric cantilever beam for voltage generation by transforming ambient fluid induced vibration energy into usable electrical energy. Piezoelectric materials have the ability to convert mechanical forces into an electric field in response to the application of mechanical stresses or vice versa. This property of the materials has found applications in sensor and actuator technologies and recently in the new field of energy harvesting. A mathematical model for energy harvesting by a piezoelectric cantilever beam device, based on classical beam analysis is presented. The optimization algorithm is implemented in Matlab, based on four physical dimension parameters of the energy harvesting cantilever. The optimal cantilever design from the theoretically derived algorithm determines four physical dimensions parameter to maximize output power. The output power is used to evaluate the performance of the energy harvester. Some interesting aspects that affect the generation of power are discussed. From this analysis, it is found that increasing the frequency of the vibration improve the output power while beyond a certain value further improvement can not be achieved by simply increasing the vibration frequency. Moreover, output power of the energy harvester is found as a function of external resistance. The model predicted anoptimized design with maximizes output power of 0.9 mW at a natural frequency of 200 Hz. Piezoelectric cantilever based energy harvester device can potentially replace the battery that supplies power in microwatt range necessary for operating wireless sensor devices.
  Shafii A. Wahab , Shabiul Islam , M.S. Bhuyan , S. Jahariah and Sawal H. Md Ali
  The development of wireless sensor network has been driven by recent new advance technologies in low-power energy integrated micro devices. The scattered nature of the sensor topologies requires its own power but the main obstacle to the battery power operation is limited resources. As a result, it must be replaced when it is exhausted. Moreover, it is difficult if the sensor is embedded in a particular object and its environment are harmful for the battery replacement and also require higher cost. To overcome the problem, natural resources known as wind energy, vibration, temperature and solar, etc., can be considered as input sources. However, vibration is the best energy source because it can be found anywhere and according to the use of piezoelectric materials that have the ability to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. The proposed research work on power conditioning circuit will be investigated, modelled and designed using synchronized switch harvesting on inductortechnique from piezoelectric vibration. In this regards, the power conditioning circuitenergy harvester can generate more energy and then stores the generated power into large reservoir capacitance, followed by combination of a charge pump-type circuit and etc. The development of the power conditioning circuit energy harvester will be modelled and simulated using PSPICE Software. Later on, the power conditioning circuit harvester will be implemented into printed circuit board layout. Finally, the comparison will be given by the power conditioning circuit performance between the simulated results in PSPICE and the validated hardware implementation into printed circuit board layout. The developed power conditioning circuit harvester can be used to replace the external battery for powering-up the low-power micro devices.
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