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Articles by M.N. Somchit
Total Records ( 9 ) for M.N. Somchit
  H. Hanisa , A. Noor Zainah , S. Ahmad Tarmizi , W.M. Wan Abd Aziz and M.N. Somchit
  The effects of edible film from modified sago starch were determined on female Sprague-Dawley rats where the aim was to develop a basic guideline for safe use of edible films as food packaging. Rats were fed with 2 g kg-1 (low dose) and 5 g kg-1 (high dose) of body weight edible film for 28 days and the control rats only received normal rat pellet. The study showed that repeated administration of high dose edible film to rats did produce significant change in the liver function (total bilirubin) and renal function parameters (creatinine). Other metabolic parameters tested were: aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase, blood lipid profile; cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride, total protein and glucose concentrations, however, they were not significantly changed with respect to control animals. In conclusion, edible film from modified sago starch at 2 g kg-1 is less likely to develop toxicity as observed in the sub-acute toxicity study.
  S.R. Hashemi , I. Zulkifli , M. Hair Bejo , A. Farida and M.N. Somchit
  In order to collect ethnobotanical information about growth and health promoter plants as feed additive in broiler chickens, five medicinal plants Euphorbia hirta, Solanum torvum, Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa and Zingiber zerumbet used by traditional medical practitioners for the treatment of several ailments of microbial and non-microbial origins were investigated for phytochemical screening and acute toxicity study. A total of 30 female broiler chicks were obtained. At 21 days of age, the chicks were allocated at random into six groups. Five chickens were assigned at random to each treatment in five replicates and kept in 30 cages (one chickens per cage) till five weeks of age. Five groups were administered a single oral dose of 2,000 mg kg-1 b.wt. while 5 mL distilled water was given to the control group of birds as placebo. Phytochemical screening study showed that plant contained volatile oils, tannins, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids. Alkaloids and steroids were only found in the aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta. Tissues were harvested and processed for photomicrographic examinations. Macro and microscopic observations indicated no alteration in liver and kidneys of the treated birds with 2000 mg kg-1 of selected herbal plants extract. In the hematological study, a highly significant decrease was observed in AST, ALT, ALP level of broiler group receiving the aqueous extract of E. hirta 14 after of administration. Acute toxicity study indicated that water suspensions of selected herbal aqueous extract are not toxic when administered by the oral route to experimental birds at 2000 mg kg-1 b.wt. In conclusion, the results obtained in the present study are in agreement to a certain degree with the traditional uses of the plants estimated as prophylaxis against various diseases and promote of health.
  M.B. Achenef , A.K. Arifah , Y.M. Goh , A.Q. Sazili , O. Fauziah , Z.A. Zakaria , A. Zuraini and M.N. Somchit
  Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLAs) are group of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid with conjugated double bonds and believed to have many health promoting effects. The present study focused on the quantitative analysis of CLAs in liver, Superficial Pectoral (SP), Longissimus Dorsi (LD) and Semimembranosus (SM) muscles of local Malaysian Kedah-Kelantan (KK) cattle slaughtered for human consumption. Fatty acids were extracted using Folch method and determined by gas chromatography. The average content of CLAs in the liver, SP, LD and SM muscles were 38.71, 18.24, 11.03 and 13.04 mg/100 g of sample, respectively. The quantity of CLAs in the liver was significantly (p<0.05) higher than other samples. The percentages of cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer were 63.39, 76.04, 90.66 and 82.82% of total CLAs in the liver, SP, LD and SM muscles, respectively. Positive correlations between CLAs and trans-11-octadecenoic acid concentration were observed in all samples. This study confirmed that meat from KK cattle could be the potential source of CLA but still its content has to be improved to make their meat more beneficial for consumers.
  Z.A. Zakaria , A.M. Mat Jais , E.F.P. Henie , H. Zaiton , M.N. Somchit , M.R. Sulaiman and F.O. Faizal
  The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of aqueous (AETT), ethanol (EETT) and chloroform (CETT) extracts of Tinosprora crispa as antibacterial agent against selected Gram positive (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Stretococcus pneumoniae and Clostridium diphtheriae) and Gram negative (Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli) bacteria using the in vitro disc diffusion methods. Twenty microliter of the extracts, prepared in the concentrations of 25, 50, 74 and 100% (stock solution) by diluting the stock solution in distilled water (DH2O) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), were impregnated on sterilized blank discs (6 mm diameter) and tested against the respective bacteria. The AETT, at all concentrations, was effective only against S. pneumoniae and C. diphtheriae but show an activity against E. coli at the concentrations of 50% and above. At all concentrations used, the EETT was effective against S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, C. diphtheriae and S. flexneri while the CETT was effective against S. pneumoniae, C. diphtheriae and S. flexneri. Furthermore, the CETT, at the concentrations of 50% and above, was effective against E. coli. As a conclusion, T. crispa possesses potential antibacterial properties and further studies are being carried out to isolate and identify the responsible compound.
  S.R. Hashemi , I. Zulkifli , Z. Zunita and M.N. Somchit
  The aim of this study was to compare selected sterilization methods to maintain high susceptibility of antibacterial activities of aqueous extracts of herbal plants. Autoclave-sterilized Impregnated disk and Impregnated disk sterilized by Acrodisc syringe filter were embedded on Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA) plates seeded with the respective test microorganisms. Among five extracts, Euphorbia hirta exhibited antibacterial activities. Autoclaving caused less damage to the antibacterial activities of the tested extract in comparison with syringe filtration.
  M.B. Achenef , A.K. Arifah , Y.M. Goh , A.Q. Sazili , O. Fauziah , A. Zuraini , M.N. Somchit and Z.A. Zakaria
  This study was focused on the quantitative analysis of Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLAs) in rumen liquor and assessment of the relationship between CLAs and other carbon 18 fatty acids and rumen pH of cattle slaughtered for meat consumption. The fatty acids were extracted using modified Folch method and determined by gas chromatography. The mean (n = 22) level of CLAs in the rumen liquor was 14.97 ±7.46 mg/100 mL. Cis-9, trans-11(c9, t11) was the dominant isomer of CLA followed by trans-10,cis-12 (t10, c12). The level of CLAs was positively correlated with the concentration of octadecatrienoic (18:3), cis-9, cis-12 octadecadienoic (18:2), trans-11octadecenoic (18:1) and octadecenoic (18:0) acids. Ruminal pH was positively correlated with the amount of c9, t11 and total CLA and negatively correlated with t10, c12 CLA isomer. All these correlations and relationships indicated that CLAs production in the rumen is dependent on availability of carbon 18 fatty acids and pH of the rumen liquor.
  Z.A. Zakaria , M.R. Sulaiman , A.K. Arifah , A.M. Mat Jais , M.N. Somchit , K. Kirisnaveni , D. Punnitharrani , M. Safarul , C.A. Fatimah and R. Johari
  The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of C. olitorius as agent for relieving inflammation and fever. The aqueous extract of C. olitorius, in the concentration of 10, 50 and 100%, was used throughout the studies. The carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer`s yeast-induced pyrexia assays were used as the anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic assays, respectively. The extract, in the concentrations ranging from 50 to 100% and 10 to 100%, also exhibited significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities that lasted until the end of the experiments, respectively. In conclusion, the present studies provide scientific proof for the folklore medicinal used of C. olitorius as agent in the treatment of inflammation and fever.
  Z.A. Zakaria , I. Reezal , A.M. Mat Jais , M.N. Somchit , M.R. Sulaiman , A.H.I. Marmin , H. Sidek , S.H. Husin , M.H.A. Rahim and L. Abdul Rahman
  The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of C. nucifera as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and wound healing agents. The fresh juice of C. nucifera (FJCN) was directly used while its aqueous kernel extract (AKCN) was obtained after 72 h soaking of 1:2 (w/v) fresh kernel in 2:1 (v/v) chloroform:methanol. The extracts, in the concentrations/strengths of 10, 50 and 100%, were used in the anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory studies while those in the concentration of 100% were used only in the wound healing study. The fresh juice and aqueous kernel extract of C. nucifera exhibited significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities and promote wound healing with the latter producing a more effective effects in all assays used. This finding has scientifically supported the folkloric used of C. nucifera in the treatment of inflammation, pyrexia and wound.
  N. Somchit , M.N. Somchit , S. Azizan Hadi and M.P. Zakaria
  A critical review of the levels of persistence organic chemicals in Malaysian waters from 1980 to 2002. This review concentrated on the detection several toxic substances by groups of scientists in the marine environment, evaluated their quantities and provides estimates of their potential danger for the health of both marine life and humans. The compounds include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tributyl-tin and pesticides. In summary, the levels of some persistent organic chemicals is lower compared with other Southeast Asia countries and the levels in this region still at the medium level compared with more urbanized and industrialized regions in the West. Nevertheless, continuous monitoring and investigations on the level of the persistent organic chemicals are needed in Malaysia. Transboundary pollution potential should be taken as an important consideration in any development project especially in Southeast Asia.
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