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Articles by M.E. Berrang
Total Records ( 4 ) for M.E. Berrang
  W.R. Windham , G.W. Heitschmidt , D.P. Smith and M.E. Berrang
  The contents of the upper digestive tract (i.e. crop, proventriculus and gizzard) may serve as a source of carcass contamination during broiler processing. The crop as been identified as a source of Salmonella and Campylobacter on contaminated carcasses and is more likely to rupture than the ceca during commercial evisceration. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of hyperspectral imaging for detecting ingesta contamination spots varying in mass from the crop and gizzard. Pre-chilled broiler carcasses were collected from a commercial processing plant. Crop and gizzard contents were also aseptically collected and enumerated for Campylobacter, coliforms, E. coli and total aerobic bacteria. Broiler carcasses were imaged and then contaminated with a spot of known mass (10, 50, or 100 mg) of crop or gizzard contents. Carcasses were then re-imaged. The imaging system correctly detected 100% of the crop and gizzard contents regardless of the mass or spot size. However, not every pixel associated with a given spot (contaminant ground truth) was detected. Detection of crop and gizzard content contaminant ground truth pixels averaged 72 and 53%, respectively. The mean number of bacteria in the crop contents were as follows: E. coli 4.0 log, coliforms 4.1 log, and total aerobic bacteria 5.7 log CFU/g of crop contents. Crop contents in the current study were Campylobacter negative. Applying crop contents in the amounts of about 9, 54, and 231 mg resulted in significant (P< 0.05) increases in all bacterial population measured, with the biggest increase being noted for total aerobic bacteria. Gizzard contents contained only 4.6 log CFU/g of total aerobic bacteria. The total added bacterial load from contamination with known amounts of crop and gizzard contents did not significantly increase whole carcass counts of all bacteria enumerated. Based on these counts and numbers of bacteria found in gizzard, carcass contamination with visible ingesta does not appear to significantly increase bacterial load.
  H. Zhuang , E.M. Savage , D.P. Smith and M.E. Berrang
  Advantages of air chilling (AC) methods over immersion chilling (IC) methods in quality retention and improvement of deboned chicken breast meat depend on experimental conditions, such as deboning time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dry-AC method on shear force and water-holding capacity (WHC) of broiler breast meat deboned 4h postmortem compared to hot-boned (no chill) or immersion-chilled meat. Ready-to-cook broiler carcasses were hot-boned, chilled by ice water immersion (0.3 °C, 50 min) or chilled by cross-flow cold, dry air (0.7 °C, 150 min). Pectoralis (p.) major and p. minor were removed from the bone at 4 h postmortem. Shear force was measured using a Warner-Bratzler (WB) method and WHC was estimated using cooking yield, drip loss, amount of bound water (filter paper method) and water uptake (swell/centrifugation method). Regardless of muscle type, the WB shear force value of AC samples was significantly lower than that of hot-boned samples; however, there was no difference in the shear force between AC and IC. Regardless of measurement methods, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in WHC between the three treatments. These results demonstrate that when compared to no chill, AC followed by 4 h postmortem deboning can lead to a difference in WB shear values while WHC properties can be retained. For broiler breast meat deboned 4 h postmortem, AC does not result in any significant differences in shear force and WHC when compared to IC.
  T. Lloyd , C.Z. Alvarado and M.E. Berrang
  Commercially, hotdogs are handled after the cooking potentially causing contamination. Since consumers may eat hotdogs without reheating, the presence of Listeria Monocytogenes (LM) is a concern. In this study, treatments with organic acids in the raw product and as a post-cook dip were evaluated for their ability to suppress the growth of LM. Beef hotdogs were formulated with organic acids, cooked, cooled, inoculated with LM and then dipped in organic acid treatments. Treatments included: 1) Potassium Lactate (PL) in the formulation and Sodium Lactate (SL) in the dip, 2) PL in the formulation and SL with Sodium Diacetate (SD) in the dip, 3) SL and SD in the formulation and SL in the dip and 4) SL and SD in the formulation and SL and SD in the dip. Positive (inoculated) and negative (non-inoculated) controls were formulated with no organic acids and dipped in distilled water. All hotdogs were stored at 4°C and the number of LM was evaluated on day 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 56. When compared to the positive control, all treatments resulted in significantly decreased LM numbers over time. The SL/SD with SL dip and SL/SD with SL/SD dip were the most effective treatments.
  N.A. Cox , B.L. McLendon , J.L. Wilson , C.L. Hofacre , M.E. Berrang , A. Hinton, Jr and D.E. Cosby
  Background and Objective: Poultry is a major source of Salmonella and Campylobacter involving human illness. Several body openings of the young chick are exposed to bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine how long artificially inoculated Salmonella or Campylobacter persist in the ceca, spleen and/or liver/gallbladder of broilers. Materials and Methods: Day old chicks (10/isolation unit and 5/floor pen) were orally gavaged with 103 cells of either a marker Salmonella Typhimurium or a marker Campylobacter coli and ceca, spleen and liver/gallbladder were aseptically sampled. Results: All organs from all birds were positive for Salmonella Typhimurium and C. coli at 1 week, most were still positive at 2 and 3 weeks. By 6 weeks, no Salmonella Typhimurium was detected in any tested organs. By 6 weeks all ceca and spleens were positive for Campylobacter coli but none found in liver/gallbladder samples. Conclusion: Translocation of Campylobacter and Salmonella to internal organs and their persistence in these organs are important because these bacteria will not be detected by the currently used methods. Current methods sample the intestinal tract only with drag swabs or fecal samples. Research is needed to understand translocation and persistence of both Campylobacter and Salmonella in poultry.
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