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Articles by M.E. Berrang
Total Records ( 4 ) for M.E. Berrang
  J.E. Line and M.E. Berrang
  Campy-Line agar, was compared to Campy-Cefex agar for recovery of Campylobacter spp. Five samples were examined from each of 18 broiler carcasses including: feathers, skin, crop, ceca and colon. An additional 16 rinse samples from fresh fully processed commercial broiler carcasses were also examined. Campy-Line agar provided Campylobacter spp. counts that closely mirrored those found by enumeration on Campy-Cefex agar. Campy-Cefex agar generally provided slightly higher counts (P<0.05) for all sample types except skin. However, Campylobacter populations recovered with Campy-Line agar were correlated with those recovered using Campy-Cefex agar; correlation coefficient values were 0.94 for feathers, 0.95 for skin, 0.98 for crop, 0.87 for ceca and 0.88 for colon samples. Observations suggest that Campy-Line agar is easier to use due to the virtual absence of contaminating colonies.
  W.R. Windham , D.P. Smith , M.E. Berrang , K.C. Lawrence and P.W. Feldner
  Broiler processing may result in fecal contamination of the surfaces of carcasses. Fecal contaminants on broiler carcasses are prohibited due to the potential presence of bacterial pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the hyperspectral imaging system to detect cecal contamination of known mass. On each of three replicate sample days, twenty-four eviscerated, pre-chilled broiler carcasses were collected from a commercial processing plant. Broiler carcasses were cut longitudinally into contra-lateral halves using a sanitized saw. Cecal contents from the same flock were also collected and used to contaminate carcass. Contents of multiple cecal were combined, homogenized and used to contaminate carcass. Carcass halves were imaged uncontaminated and cecal contents (10, 50, or 100 mg) were applied to the carcass half, and then re-imaged. Cecal detection results varied due to contaminate detection threshold. The imaging system correctly identified 100% cecal mass applied at a threshold of 1.00 and 1.05 but also incorrectly identified 252 and 65 carcass features, respectively that were not contaminates (false positives). False negative were only associated with the 10mg mass and a detection threshold of 1.10. The percentage of true positive cecal pixels (ie. ground truth) detected also varied due to the detection threshold. Averaged across cecal mass, the percentage of the cecal ground truth detected was 74, 55 and 35% for the 1.00, 1.05 and 1.10 threshold, respectively. The percentage of contaminated pixels not detected were a spectral mixture of cecal and uncontaminated skin. Detection of mixed pixels in small contaminants (ie. 10mg and less) or an aggregate of several single-pixels is essential for contaminant identification. Detection of mixed pixels in large contaminants is not significant to overall contaminant identification.
  J.A. Cason , R.J. Buhr , A. Hinton , Jr. , M.E. Berrang and N.A. Cox
  Lactic-acid-producing bacterial cultures were applied to the skin of live broilers 24 hours before slaughter to determine whether inoculation with the cultures could affect the numbers of bacteria that are normally found on the skin of processed broiler carcasses. The cultures contained 10,000 to 100,000 cfu/mL and were suspended in 250 mL of a pH 6.0 nutrient medium (including glucose, peptone, beef extract, yeast extract, a surfactant, and salts) intended to enhance the survival and growth of the cultures. With broilers suspended by the feet, feathers were moved aside and the liquid suspension was sprayed directly on the skin. Sprayed broilers were then returned to a pen. In each of three replications, 4 six-wk-old broilers were sprayed and 4 broilers were kept as untreated controls. The following day, broilers were processed in a research processing facility and defeathered carcasses were sampled by rinsing for 1 min in 200 mL of peptone water after removal of heads and feet. Coliforms, E. coli, lactic-acid bacteria, and Campylobacter in carcass rinses were enumerated by standard methods. After removal of aliquots for plating, the remaining sample volume was enriched to detect Salmonella. No differences were found in log10(cfu/mL) of coliforms, E. coli, or lactic-acid bacteria between the treated and control carcasses. Salmonella bacteria were present on some carcasses, but with no difference between treatments. Campylobacter spp. were present in only one replication, so numbers of Campylobacter could not be analyzed statistically. Spraying lactic-acid-producing bacteria with nutrients on the skin of live broilers on the day before processing appears to have no effect on numbers of bacteria that are present on the skin after defeathering.
  M.E. Berrang , S.R. Ladely , M. Simmons , D.L. Fletcher and P.J. Fedorka-Cray
  Salmonella is frequently reported as a cause of food-borne illness. The emergence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella associated with meat products has heightened concerns regarding antimicrobial use in food animal production. Eighty Salmonella isolates recovered from fresh whole chicken carcasses purchased at retail outlets were examined for susceptibility to 18 antimicrobials. Fifteen serotypes were identified; the top five included; S. Heidelberg (25%), S. Typhimurium 5- (formerly var. Copenhagen) (18.75%), S. Kentucky (17.5%), S. Berta (11.25%), and S. Hadar (8.75%). Overall, resistance was most commonly observed to tetracycline (25%), ampicillin (22.5%), streptomycin (21.25%) and cephalosporin derivatives (cephalothin 18.75%, ceftiofur 16.25%, and cefoxitin 15%). Of all isolates, 43.75% were resistant to one or more antimicrobial and 36 % were identified as multi-drug resistant (MDR, resistant to 2 or more antimicrobials). Fourteen resistance patterns were observed and among isolates showing resistance, 22.5% were resistant to 1-3 antimicrobials, 16.25% were resistant to 4-6 antimicrobials, and 5.0% were resistant to = 7 antimicrobials. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance varied by serotype. All 7 S. Hadar isolates were resistant to 1-2 antimicrobials, 4 of 20 S. Heidelberg isolates were resistant to 1-3 antimicrobials, 10 of 15 S. Typhimurium 5- isolates were resistant to 4-5 antimicrobials, 7 of 14 S. Kentucky isolates were resistant to 1-7 antimicrobials, and 3 of 9 S. Berta isolates expressed resistance to 9-11 antimicrobials. These data indicate that Salmonella recovered from retail poultry carcasses may be resistant to multiple antimicrobials, and that resistance among these isolates varies by serotype.
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