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Articles by M.A.A. Sobieh
Total Records ( 3 ) for M.A.A. Sobieh
  Essam S. Soliman , E.G. Taha , M.A.A. Sobieh and P.G. Reddy
  Problem statement: Poultry industry is intensive and consistently applies an all-in, all-out system with the aim of minimizing infection pressure and targeting specific pathogens like Salmonella which remains one of the leading causes of food-borne illness, many questions regarding the introduction and persistence in animal production still remain. Therefore disinfection during production break is a routine part of the biosecurity programs of poultry houses. The correct usage of disinfectants is an important key of a successful biosecurity program in poultry farms and in-turn the role of the scientist was to evaluate the efficacy of these disinfection programs. Approach: In this study five commercial disinfectants [Green work (green non anionic surfactant), Sanidate RTU (hydrogen peroxide compound), Hi-yeild®consan 20® (phenolic compound), Tektrol® (quaternary ammonium compound) and Kreso®D (phenolic compound)] were evaluated against Salmonella typhimurium in two different experimental conditions. In Experiment I, S. typhimurium was inoculated into fresh poultry litter (aluminum trays L: 30 cm x W: 25 cm x D: 6 cm filled with wood shavings) by inoculums size of ~107 CFU mL-1 and then mixed with 100 g of fresh poultry droppings. Sample sizes of 3 g were obtained daily for the bacterial counts. Green work achieved100% killing of S. typhimurium by day 7 (p≤0.0001); Sanidate RTU achieved100% killing by day 6 (p≤0.001); Hi-yield® Consan®, Tektrol® and Kreso® D achieved100% killing by day 5 (p≤0.001). Disinfectants were also compared to each other in their efficacy each day. At day 1, Green work was inferior to all other disinfectants at (p≤0.05). On day 2, Kreso® D was significantly superior to Tektrol®, Hi-yield® Consan®, Sanidate RTU and Green work at p≤0.01, p≤0.01, p≤0.01, p≤0.005; respectively. At day 4 Kreso® D was significantly superior to Hi-yield® Consan® at p≤0.01, Tektrol® was also significantly superior to Green work at p≤0.01. In experiment II; MIC use-dilution test was used to evaluate the five disinfectants against S. typhimurium (~107CFU mL-1) in the absence of organic matter. Results: Hourly samples were collected for the bacterial counts. Maximum efficacy (100% killing efficacy against S. typhimurium) was achieved for Green Work after 16 h (p≤0.0001), with Sanidate RTU after 8 h (p≤0.0001), with Hi-yield® Consan® and Kreso® D after 2 h at (p≤0.0001) and with Tektrol® after 4 h (p≤0.0001). In presence of organic matter Green work and Sanidate RTUachieved 100% killing efficacy against S. typhimurium after 16 h (p≤0.0001), Hi-yield® Consan® and Kreso® D after 2 h at (p≤0.0001); Tektrol® after 8 h (p≤0.0001). When disinfectants were compared to each other in relation to time; we found that there was no kind of significance between their efficacies. When compared to other tested disinfectants, Kreso® D which is a phenolic compound revealed superior activity against Salmonella typhimurium in the two experiments. Conclusion: The study showed that many disinfectants regardless to their constituents continues to give a very powerful efficacy against the most virulent bacterial strains, but the question remain can they be used in the presence of live birds. Further studies are required to explore the safety and the efficacy of these compounds when applied in poultry farms in the presence of live birds.
  E.S. Soliman , H. Busby , C. Kilpatrick , Y. Nagamalleswari , P. McDuff and M.A.A. Sobieh
  Problem statement: Genetic line differences in resistance of layer hens and young chicks to Salmonella entritidis have been identified through a lot of studies. That is why the agricultural industry was prepared for the potential phasing out of antibiotics for use in controlling bacterial pathogens. Early infection may result in long term colonization of layers with Salmonella entritidis, resulting in shedding into table or hatching eggs. Approach: This study was carried to evaluate the genetic factors underlying early response to Salmonella entritidis, genetic line differences in mortality and pathogen load at two sites (cecal lumen and spleen) were investigated. At day of hatch, chicks of four genetic lines were intra-esophageally inoculated with one of three doses of Salmonella entritidis phage type 13 A. Results: There was a significant effect (p≤0.001) of genetic line on chick 6 days survival. The effect of genetic line was significant (p≤0.05) on survivorsí Salmonella entritidis burden in cecal content but not on Salmonella entritidis load per gram of spleen. Salmonella entritidis pathogen load of the spleen and the cecal content were not significantly correlated, indicating that independent host mechanisms are partly responsible for these two traits. Conclusion: Future Salmonella entritidis control mechanism in poultry may be the same as it is used these days but it has to be for longer term sustainability, genetic resistance should be pursued. Sufficient genetic line variation should exists to suggest that it is feasible to effectively choose among pure breeder lines for those exhibits reduced Salmonella entritidis induced mortality and cecal content Salmonella entritidis pathogen load in young layer chicks.
  Essam S. Soliman , Ensaf G. Taha , M.A.A. Sobieh and P.G. Reddy
  Combined effects of temperature, relative humidity and litter pH in the presence or absence of organic matter on the survival of S. typhimurium over time was studied. The litter (L: 30 cm x W: 25 cm x D: 6 cm aluminum trays filled with wood shavings) was inoculated with S. typhimurium at initial concentration of 4.8 x 107CFU/ml, then litter trays were placed in a room with microclimate similar to that of a naturally ventilated poultry house. The periodical measurement of S. typhimurium population in poultry litter in relation to the ambient environmental conditions revealed that: in the absence of organic matter; there was a non-significant (p<0.99) negative correlation (-0.07 at confidence level 95%) between ambient temperature and survival of S. typhimurium, a non-significant (p<0.53) positive correlation (+0.04 at confidence level 95%) between relative humidity and survival of S. typhimurium population and a highly significant (p<0.005) positive correlation (+0.67 at confidence level 95%) between litter pH and survival. In the presence of organic matter, there was a non-significant (p<0.55) negative correlation (-0.22 at confidence level 95%) between ambient temperature and survival, a highly significant (p<0.0001) negative correlation (-0.12 at confidence level 95%) between relative humidity and survival and a significant (p<0.05) positive correlation (+0.48 at confidence level 95%) between litter pH and survival. The study suggested that increased litter pH and relative humidity rather than temperature presented a great influence on the increased survival of S. typhimurium. New management practice that will reduce litter pH and relative humidity should be considered in the control plans of Salmonellosis in poultry farms.
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