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Articles by M.A. Khan
Total Records ( 11 ) for M.A. Khan
  S.K. Das , S.K. Singh , B.P.S. Yadav and M.A. Khan
  The 2 crossbred low yielding milch cows were maintained in loose housing under the organic farming project and their performances were studied in the system. About 1 ha of land was brought under organic farming. About 50% land was earmarked for crop, i.e., paddy, wheat in different season, 20% land for fishery, 20% land for horticultural crop and 10% land was kept for dairy and fodder production. Overall mean yield of morning milk, evening milk and total milk per cow was found to be 3.966, 2.936 and 6.902 kg, respectively. Average daily intake of dry roughage, green roughage and concentrate per cow was 4.504, 7.134 and 6.371 kg, respectively. Average daily yield of dung was 12.891 kg. Highest total milk yield of cow (10.450 kg) was recorded in the month April. Higher milk yield during the month April was due to availability green fodder. Multiple Regression analysis of data indicated that daily milk yield of cow increases by 339 and 811 g (p<0.01) per kg increase of green roughage intake and concentrate intake.
  M.H. Khan , G. Hassan , N. Khan and M.A. Khan
  Field study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of different herbicides against broadleaf weeds. Different herbicides significantly effected weeds density m-2, number of broadleaf weeds m-2, number of tillers m-2, number of spikelets spike-1, number of grains spike-1, 1000-grains weight (g), biological yield (kg ha-1) and grain yield (kg ha-1). For controlling weeds, logran extra proved to be the best, giving 17.25 weeds m-2 as compared to 80.25 in weedy check plots. Similarly, maximum grain yield (3929 kg ha-1) was recorded in logran extra treated plots followed by plots receiving stomp and alkanak with grain yield of 3155 and 3111 kg ha-1, respectively. Minimum yield (1870 kg ha-1) was recorded in weedy check plots.
  N. Khan , G. Hassan , K.B. Marwat and M.A. Khan
  The effect of different herbicides applied at different timings viz. 30, 45 and 60 days after sowing (DAS) of wheat crop was studied for controlling weeds. Herbicidal treatments were Assert (Imazamethabenz-methyl) 0.30, isoproturon 1.12 kg alone and buctril-M (bromoxynil+MCPA) 0.72 kg+topik (clodinofop) 0.37 kg, logran (trisulfuron) 0.64 kg+topik (clodinofop) 0.37 kg, 2,4-D (2,4-D ester) 1.20 kg+topik (clodinofop) 0.37 kg and puma super (phenoxyprop-ethyle) 0.75 kg+2,4-D (2,4-D ester) 1.20 kg a.i. ha-1. A weedy check was also included for comparison. The analysis of the data revealed significant differences among the times of application for biological yield and grain yield. Similarly significant differences were recorded for herbicidal treatments in traits like spikelets spike-1, 1000 grains weight (g), biological yield (kg ha-1) and grain yield (kg ha-1). The interaction of the times of application and herbicides was significant for spikelets spike-1 and for grain yield. Maximum number of spikelets spike-1 and heavier 1000 grains weight was observed in plots treated with buctril-M+topik mixture, while minimum in weedy check plots. Biological and grain yield (kg ha-1) were higher in plots treated with buctril-M+topik and logran extra+topik while lower biological and grain yield were in weedy check plots. Buctril-M+topik proved to be the most economical herbicides giving maximum return of Rs. 24631 ha-1, if applied 45 DAS in wheat.
  R. Gomathi Bhavani and M.A. Khan
  The findings of a research study conducted to analyze the prevalence and penetration of various lighting control systems in the new projects of Dubai is presented in this paper. A sample of 205 new projects in Dubai were classified into three categories namely residential, commercial and hotel projects and the presence of five lighting control technologies in these buildings were analyzed. The study also identifies that meeting the requirements of property developers, not energy saving, is the biggest demand driver of lighting control business in Dubai. From the response of participants, also analyzed are the factors for resistance to adoption of these systems. Looking into the future scenarios, the study identifies the different factors that would make these controls more common in future. The present trends point towards aggressive energy policies of the government in future such as implementation of lighting code regulation which has its own share of difficulties and challenges.
  M.R. Lias , T.V.V.L.N. Rao , M. Awang and M.A. Khan
  Misalignment in gear dynamics mesh always lead to generate a vibration that causes of un-even dynamic load on transmitting torque to the gear tooth. This type of load is also considered as one of the main criteria on contributing the high stresses happen to the teeth that lead to the fatigue breakage after in some duration of cyclic loading time. This effort of study is made to analyze theoretical forces that create stresses with the effect of axial misalignment to a spur gear in meshing condition. A 3D CAD model of the pinion hobbing gear tooth was created with Autodesk Inventor 2010 and analyzes using ANSYS V13 FEA method. The transmitted dynamic load was calculated with change of misalignment angle proportionally to the theoretical contact area on the tooth face. As a result the stress distribution at the contact region and the tooth root is clearly seen variant with the misalignment angle and the equivalent stress is directly proportional with the misalignment deviation. The values of equivalent stresses and its distribution are change with the changing of deviation angle. The stress concentration is higher at the contact region and the tooth root with augmentation of misalignment angle. The face load factor in align and misalign shows the increasing of the load deviation will cause the factor to increase and probably the major contribution to the vibration of the gear mesh in dynamic condition.
  G.K. Ramegowda , Irfan Illahi , Vishal Mittal , Imtiyaza Akhter , Anil Dhar and M.A. Khan
  This study was conducted at Pampore in Kashmir valley, India during 2009-2011 cropping seasons to measure the incidence and severity of lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) (LMP) and mulberry looper, Hemerophila atrilineata Butler (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) (ML). Fortnightly observations were made on incidence and severity from May to October. Influence of weather parameters on the seasonality and severity LMP and ML was quantified. LMP was recorded from July onwards until leaf fall in October during 2009 and 2010. It was recorded early during 2011 by May 2nd fortnight. Incidence and severity levels of ML were relatively lower compared to that of LMP. During 2009 and 2010 mulberry looper prevailed from July onwards till leaf fall in October. In contrast, during 2011 ML appeared a month late from August 2nd fortnight onwards with a steep increase during last two intervals of observation. Correlations were negatively significant at p = 0.01 for LMP incidence with minimum and maximum temperatures and number of rain days during same fortnight (SFN). Severity of LMP with preceding second fortnight’s morning relative humidity was negative and significant at p = 0.01. Correlations for both incidence and severity of ML with minimum temperature of SFN were negatively significant at p = 0.01. Multiple regression modules with weather parameters of SFN had higher probability and R2 values. There is need to continue the studies to establish precise relations with weather and pest incidence and severity.
  Muhammad Ishtiaq , Wajahat Hanif , M.A. Khan , M. Ashraf and Ansar M. Butt
  Ethnobotanical knowledge is one of the precious cultural heritage parts of an area that involves the interaction between plants and people and foremost among these are the management of plant diversity by indigenous communities and the traditional use of medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical analysis was conducted in order to document the traditional medicinal uses of plants, particularly medicinally important folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, Azad Kashmir (Pakistan). In the valley, inhabitants use different taxa of flora in two different ways; herbal medicines and food (vegetable and fruits) medicines. The distinctive geographic position and historic demological background of the area keep folk phytotherapy potential of medicinal herbs hitherto alive, which are used in various forms; as regular herbal medicines prescribed by Hakeems (herbal practitioners) and as food (medicines) recepies suggested by elder people. Among these, some herbs are used as single remedy while others depict better curative effects in synergistic mode against various ailments. Some interesting and uncommon findings are as; Sisymbrium irio is used for treatment of measles, asthma; Solanum miniatum to cure urinary calculi, heart pain, rheumatism, Momordica balsamina leaves as wound healer; Allium sativum bulb juice as anti cancer, contraceptive, blood pressure; Boerhavia diffusa roots as anti jaundice, anemia, edema; Capsicum annuum fruit as omen against evil eye and giant, yellow fever; Corriandrum sativum seeds as diuretic, anti spermatogenesis; Raphanus sativus seeds against syphilis; Solanum miniatum fruit for treatment of enlarged spleen and liver; seed's oil of Pisum sativum as anti spermatogenesis; Bauhinia variegata for skin diseases, ulcers; Malva sylvestris for cough, bladder ulcer; Phoenix sylvestris kernel as anti-aging tonic; Phyllanthus emblica for diuretic, anemia, biliousness; Terminalia chebula to cure chronic ulcers, carious teeth pain, heart problems; Veronica anthelmintica for bandage of broken bones and Withania coagulans is used to treat small pox. Many wild plants are eaten green and raw as salad, or in boiled form of soup as blood and intestine cleansing tonics. Moreover, some plants are spiritually recorded as sacred and used as ritual plant for good omens or against the evil eye and removal of giant. About 95 species of 38 families were recorded to be important part of phyto heritage of folk pharmacopoeia of Samahni valley. Among most frequent used families are Papilionaceae 9.47%, Solanaceae and Poaceae 8.42% each, Cucurbitaceae 7.36% and Brassicaceae and Rosaceae 6.31% each. Among the surveyed families used to treat various diseases, Solanaceae is at first rank with 9.74%, Brassicaceae 8.23% and Cucurbitaceae 7.39% subsequently. Most commonly used families with highest percentage of plants used as food medicines are Solanaceae (11.37%), Brassicaceae (8.38%) and Papilionaceae (7.18%) respectively. Most frequent plant parts used are; roots, leaves, seeds and flowers while popular forms of plants uses are decoction, poultice, infusions, soups and raw form as salad. Importance of ethnobotanical inventory constructed from ethnomedicinal uses and folklore phytonims of flora in perspectives of initiative for future phytochemical and pharmacological research on these taxa to develop and discover of new drugs is present and discussed.
  Shafiullah , M.A. Khan , M.A. Poswal , M.A. Rana and Baitullah
  The removal of upper 2/3 and ½ leaves caused a yield reduction of 29 and 55.8 percent in 1992 and 37 and 44.8 percent in 1993, respectively. During 1992, about 1 percent yield decline was observed when the lower 1/3 leaves were removed and 6 percent yield declined with the removal of the lower ½ leaves, while in 1993, the yield reduction was 26.7 and 39.2 percent due to removal of lower 1/3 and ½ leaves, respectively. This indicated that upper leaves (source) contribute more towards sink (seed yield) as compared to the lower ones. Correspondingly, the results indicated that insects and pests feeding on the upper portion of the sunflower plant can cause more reduction in seed yield than the lower leaves.
  M.A. Kausar , M. Sadiq , M.A. Khan , M. Hassan and M.A. Haq
  Shoot samples at preflowering stage and grains at maturity from four replicated field trials on advanced germplasm of chickpea along with some of the commercial varieties were collected. Three trials consisted of Desi germplasm with, 12, 12, and 8 entries while the fourth one had 11 entries of Kabuli material. The advanced lines appeared to be highly promising as they gave maximum increase over the old check varieties in grain yield upto 60 percent in first trial followed by 58 percent in second, 53 percent in third and 43 percent in the 4th one. On the overall basis, the whole germplasm under study contained sufficient B and Cu, while Zn and P (in grain) were marginal if not deficient. Almost all the material had relatively higher B in the grain than that of cereals like wheat. After field survey, a followup soil pot culture study was conducted employing 5 varieties and 2 lines on a soil with marginal Zn and B. Variety 6153 responded to 5 mg kg–1 Zn application by 39, CM 72 by 26, NIFA 95 by 17 and mutant CM 1571-1-A by 11 percent, while remaining responded negligibly. Mutant CM 31-1 responded to 1 mg kg–1 B application by 30, CM 1571-1-A, C 44 and 6153 shared the response by 27 percent. Remaining three did not respond or responded negatively. All the entries in the four trials contained marginal Zn i.e., <20 mg kg–1 and sufficient B i.e.,>30 mg kg–1, yet some of them responded to the applications markedly indicating their high B and Zn requirement than reported in the literature.
  M.A. Khan , M.K. Hasan , M.A.J. Miah , M.M. Alam and A.S.M.H. Masum
  The experiment was undertaken to determine the effect of spacing on onion cultivation of different varieties. Different spacings were taken 20x10 cm, 15x10 cm, 10x10 cm, 15x7.5 cm, 10x7.5 cm and 7.5x7.5 cm. Three varieties viz BARI Piaz-1, Taherpuri and Faridpur Bhati were used for study. Significantly wider spacing produced higher size of plant height, leaf length and number of leaves. Bulb length, diameter and weight also the same trend in wider spacing. The weight of individual bulb of onion (23.52 g) was increased with the widest spacing (20x10 cm). On the contrary, yield ha–1 was the highest (16.65 t ha–1) at the closest spacing (7.5x7.5 cm) and the lowest (10.05 t ha–1) was at widest spacing (20x10 cm). But in closer spacing, bulb size was so small that was not suitable for the choice of consumer. On the other hand wider spacing produced the highest percentage (24.34%) multiplier bulbs that was not better for storing and consumers demand. So, in respect of economic point of view 15x10 cm spacing recommended in onion cultivation. It was found BARI Piaz-1 performed better in respect of yield and other parameters.
  R.G. Bhavani and M.A. Khan
  This study investigates the powerful features and related issues of advanced lighting simulation tools as applicable to daylighting projects. Advanced lighting simulation tools are used to see how light behaves in a building. They are also useful alternatives in situations where placement and maintenance of sensors is costly option. These tools play an effective role in daylighting projects thus contributing to creating energy efficient buildings. Challenges of sky modelling, time complexity of software towards real time control applications, validation and energy simulation are some of the related issues. This study presents a detailed literature on the tools available in the market and reports about the previous works based on them. Also demonstrated are the systematic procedures of simulation with the corresponding values and parameters. The model accommodating the dynamic features of a daylighting project was built by a lighting simulation software, Relux Pro, 2004. It was shown that Relux was able to model indoor daylight illuminances accurately for CIE sky conditions, L-type geometry and room configuration. The wide range of reflectances and transmittances are also supported by Relux for mimicking real world glazing surfaces and materials. Outputs such as 3D representation, isolux curves and evaluation, luminance distribution, table outputs, 3D mountain plot of illuminance and solar altitude graph are also illustrated. These powerful features give a better perspective of how daylight behaves within the room. Results showed that the test space can be illuminated by pure daylight for most part of the year due to higher sunshine probability.
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