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Articles by M.A. Malik
Total Records ( 2 ) for M.A. Malik
  Shafiullah , S. Asad , M.A. Rana , Baitullah , A.S. Khan and M.A. Malik
  Four row directions i.e., north-south (NS), east-west (EW), north east-south west (NESW) and north west-south east (NWSE) had very little effect on seed yield and other agronomic characters of sunflower. The differences in mean plant height, head diameter, seed yield, 100-achene weight and fatty acid profile were statistically non-significant. Similar trend was observed during both the single years. As an average of two years, although statistically non-significant, the highest seed yield of 3065 kg ha–1 from north east-south west (NESW) and the lowest yield of 2624 kg/ha were obtained from east-west (EW) row directions. The most pronounced effect of row directions was noted on the seed moisture content. As an average of two years, the maximum seed moisture content (21.4%) at harvest was obtained from east-west (EW) and the minimum (14.6%) from north-south (NS) row directions. NESW row direction also gave significantly lower moisture content (15.1%) than EW (21.4%) and NWSE (18.1%) row directions. Therefore, using north-south and NESW row directions would help to dry standing crop more quickly before harvest and reduce post harvest costs and losses. Seed production fields that require examination of sunflower heads to detect pollen production should be planted in NS rows for efficient rouging to keep genetic purity. For research plots, EW rows with plot labels on the east end often are preferred, because it is easier to evaluate most plots when all heads face the viewer.
  S.A. Kakakhel , N. Islam , M. Amjad and M.A. Malik
  The most important species attacking the sunflower crop are whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennad.), plant hopper (Empoasca spp), cabbage semilooper (Thysanoplusia orichalcea F.), hairy caterpillar (Diacretia oblique Walk.), green stink bug (Nezara viridula L.), Helicoverpa armigera Hubner and dusky bug (Nysius inconspicuus Distant.). The peak infestation of sucking pests, whitefly and plant hopper was observed in last week of May and first week of June, respectively on spring crop. Their population remained high upto the first week of October on autumn, Among the defoliators, the maximum population of cabbage semilooper was observed during the second week of April and again in the second week of September. The peak population of hairy caterpillar was recorded in the second week of October. However, the later pest did not appear during spring. Among the direct pests, the highest numbers of H. armigera Hubner was recorded in the first week of May. It did not attack during autumn. The highest population of dusk bug was noted in the first week of October as well as in the first week of June. These results, however, confirmed that whitefly is a serious pest on autumn sunflower while high population of plant hoppers during both the seasons caused more damage than that of whitefly. The present study also showed that cabbage semilooper may be a potential sunflower pest. The green stink bug and H. armigera Hubner. have found to be minor pests. The dusky bug might be classified as a serious pest of spring.
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