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Articles by M. Zakaria
Total Records ( 6 ) for M. Zakaria
  M. Zakaria , M.N. Rajpar and A.S. Sajap
  The objective of this study was to examine the bird species diversity and feeding guilds in Paya Indah Wetland Reserve, Peninsular, Malaysia. Distance sampling-point count method was used to survey the bird species. A total of 13872 birds belonging to 100 species and 38 families were recorded. The results show that Treron vernans (12.42%), Pycnonotus goiavier (12.13%), Geopelia striata (7.58%), Porphyrio porphyrio (6.87%) and Streptopelia chinensis (6.33%) were the most dominant species in the area. The Ardeidae was the most dominant family with nine species and sixteen families were rarest only with one species each. The highest bird diversity was observed in Marsh swamp (Shannon’s N1 = 27.16), while the lowest was in Patchy shrubland (Shannon’s N1 = 22.51). The highest bird species richness was observed in Marsh swamp (Margalef’s R1 = 9.52), while the lowest was observed in open water bodies (Margalef’s R1 = 7.35). The evenness of individuals among the species was higher in Marsh swamps (Pielou J = 0.71) and lower in Patchy shrubland (Pielou J = 0.67). Analysis of variance and Tukey (HSD) tests showed that bird species among habitats is significantly different (F4, 495 = 8.82 p<0.0001). Feeding guilds indicated that insectivore was the most dominant group (37%), while Carnivore/Insectivore and Granivore were the least dominant groups (3% each) in all five habitats. This study clearly indicated that Paya Indah Wetland Reserve is highly important in providing food resources, shelter, nesting and roosting sites for wide range of bird species.
  H.H. Luqman , K.S. KuZilati and M. Zakaria
  This study presents the coating uniformity using modified bio-polymer in a tangential fluidized bed coater via Taguchi’s method. The study focused on the implementation of coating uniformity using modified bio-polymer toward granular urea. In this study, efficiency of mass coating per granular urea was used as indicator for coating uniformity. A series of coating experiments were carried out to determine the effect of inlet air temperature, disc rotation speed and spraying rate to the efficiency of mass coating per granular urea. An orthogonal array, the signal-to-noise ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Besides achieving optimal parameters for the efficiency of mass coating per granular urea, the findings explain parameters that affect the results. The confirmation run had carried out to verify the conclusion from the variance analysis.
  S. Yon Norasyikin , K. KuZilati , M. Zakaria and S. Suriati
  The droplet impact behaviour provides the particle coating characterization during the coating process of controlled release fertiliser. To have a good coating uniformity around the urea granules, it is necessary to enhance the wettabitily properties between the coating material and urea surface. In this study, modified biopolymer is used as the coating material for the controlled release fertilizer. Various compositions of starch:urea:borate were prepared and evaluated for the wettability properties. The wettability properties measured are the maximum spreading diameter, dynamic contact angle and surface tension. The high speed Charged Couple Device (CCD) camera was used to capture the images of this droplet impact behaviour. From this analysis, it is indicated that a composition of starch:urea:borate (50:15:2.5) has the best wettability characteristic and thus are suitable to be used as a coating material.
  L. Zakaria , N.S. Ali , B. Salleh and M. Zakaria
  Ganoderma isolates from different hosts namely, G. boninense from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), G. philiplii from rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) and G. australe from forest trees were characterized using RAPD and PCR-RFLP of ITS+5.8S regions. RAPD primers of high G+C content of 80-100% [CRL-1 (5’CCAGCGCCCC), CRL-2 (5`CTGCCGCCGC), CRL-7 (5’GCCCGCCGCC3’), CRL-11 (5`CCACCGCGCC) and CRL-34 (5’GACCGCGCCC)] showed that the banding patterns from the same species generated similar patterns. Like RAPD, restriction analysis of ITS+5.8S regions using six restriction enzymes (Mspl, Bsu151, Hin61, Hindlll, Hinfl and Taql) also showed that restriction patterns from the same species generated similar patterns. From UPGMA cluster analysis of RAPD and PCR-RFLP of ITS+5.8S regions, Ganoderma species from the same host were clustered together. The results from the present study showed that RAPD and PCR-RFLP of ITS+5.8S regions could be used in characterization and taxonomic analysis of Ganoderma species from different hosts. Both techniques could also provide rapid procedure for differentiation of Ganoderma species in Peninsula Malaysia.
  M.N. Rajpar and M. Zakaria
  The main objectives of this study was to determine and compare the density and diversity of water birds and terrestrial birds using distance sampling point count method at Paya Indah Wetland Reserve, Selangor Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 13872 bird individuals from 100 bird species were recorded in the wetland reserve. Out of the total, 25 (22.26% of all detections) and 75 (77.74% of all detections) bird species belong to water birds and terrestrial birds respectively. The results showed that total bird density of the wetland reserve is 83.92±4.53 birds ha-1 and ranged from 75.40-93.41 birds ha-1 (95% confidence interval). The terrestrial birds have higher density (70.26±4.48 birds ha-1) as compared to water birds (13.09±1.78 birds ha-1). The highest water bird density was recorded for Purple Swamphen (5.05±0.89 birds ha-1) and the lowest was Ballion's Crake (0.31±0.13 birds ha-1). The highest terrestrial bird density was recorded for Yellow-vented Bulbul (12.97±1.05 birds ha-1) and the lowest was Ashy Minivet (0.31±0.18 birds ha-1). The highest species diversity i.e. Shannon’s index (N1 = 20.83), species richness i.e. Margalef’s index (R1 = 7.97) and species evenness, i.e., McIntosh’s index (E = 0.73) was recorded in terrestrial birds. This study indicated that Paya Indah Wetland Reserve is a highly important habitat and provides diverse food, shelter, nesting and roosting sites for water birds as well as terrestrial birds.
  A.S.M. Sh. Marzety Adibah , M. Zakaria and M.S. Nor Shakirah
  The aim of this study is to explore and understand the life experiences of young women involved with delinquent behaviours by using expressive arts therapy. Seven young women aged between 16 and 18 years old placed in the Tunas Bakti School were selected using purposive sampling. All study participants underwent the expressive art therapy in counselling groups. This study used a phenomenological method for understanding the experiences of their lives better. The strategy of triangulation of data from a variety of sources such as interviews, observation and document analysis were used to collect data. The findings have identified a number of themes which are family dynamics, risky behaviours and criminal activities, formal education, abuse, psychological issues and appreciation of religious. The implications of the findings are also discussed.
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