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Articles by M. Xu
Total Records ( 3 ) for M. Xu
  T Ishii , J Wang , W Zhang , J Mascarenhas , R Hoffman , Y Dai , N Wisch and M. Xu

Pruritus is a common symptom in patients with Philadelphia chromosome–negative myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs). The pathophysiology of MPD-associated pruritus is unclear. We have demonstrated that MPD mast cells (MCs) are involved by the malignant process. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that MCs play an important role in the development of pruritogenesis in MPDs. We found that MPD MCs released significantly greater amounts of pruritogenic factors, including histamine, leukotrienes, and interleukin-31 (IL-31) than normal MCs. Elevated levels of IL-31 were also observed in MPD CD3+ cell-conditioned media. MPD MCs exhibited increased migratory behavior in response to stem cell factor or interleukin-8, which was associated with increased filamentous-actin content. Furthermore, the presence of pruritus in MPDs was statistically correlated with a greater number of MCs being generated by CD34+ cells, a greater number of MC colonies being formed by CD34+ cells, decreased apoptosis and prostaglandin D2 release by cultured MCs, and higher plasma levels of IL-31. These data demonstrate that functional abnormalities of MPD MCs probably lead to pruritogenesis in patients with MPDs. These studies provide cellular and molecular targets for the development of antipruritus drugs for patients with MPDs.

  J.J. Zuo , A.H. Guo , X.Y. Yan , M. Xu , W.G. Xia and D.Y. Feng
  The objective of this study was to assess the effects of commercial β-mannanase enzyme supplementation in low-energy corn-soybean meal diets on performance, intestinal morphology and mRNA expression of intestinal tight junction proteins in 1-21 days broiler chickens. The 1800, 1 day old broiler chicks were divided into 5 treatment groups, 6 pens in each treatment. The study was performed in a randomised complete block design. The 5 treatments were Positive diet Group (PG) with basal energy level, Negative diet Group (NG) with lower energy of 502.08 kJ kg-1 and other groups supplemented with 150, 300 and 450 mg kg-1 β-mannanase based on NG. Decrease of energy in NG resulted in loss of the Average Daily Gain (ADG) (p<0.05) and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) (p<0.05). Based on the NG, supplementation with β-mannanase in diet significantly improved the Average Daily Gain (ADG) (p<0.05) and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) (p<0.05) of birds. ADG of groups with enzyme and lower energy reached to the level of PG. Supplementation with 300 g ton-1 β-mannanase increased the villus height of the small intestine (p<0.05) and 450 g ton-1 β-mannanase significantly decreased the crypt depth (p<0.01). The addition of β-mannanase at 150, 300 and 450 g ton-1 to the diets increased the ratio of crypt depth to villus height of the duodenum and jejunum in birds (p<0.01). The ratio of crypt depth to villus height of the ileum was also increased with 300 and 450 g ton-1 β-mannanase supplementation compared to the low-energy diet group (p<0.01). Chicks fed diet with the β-mannanase showed an increased mRNA expression of ZO-1 in the duodenum compared with the low energy diet (p<0.05). Supplementation with 300 and 450 g ton-1 β-mannanase to the diets enhanced the mRNA expression of Occludin and ZO-1 in the jejunum (p<0.05) and 300 g ton-1 β-mannanase increased enhanced the mRNA expression of Occludin and ZO-1 in the ileum (p<0.05). Thus, the addition of β-mannanase to low energy diets improved the performance, gut morphology and mRNA expression of intestinal tight junction proteins.
  J. Lia , G. Wang , T. Zhu , L. Sun , M. Xu and R. Rong

Background: Traditional open donor nephrectomy (ODN) is associated with good outcomes and excellent allograft function; nevertheless, it causes too much injury to the donor. Hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (HLDN) may accomplish these goals with less damage. We compared the outcomes of the hand-assisted with the traditional open approach. We also investigated whether the availability of the HLDN approach affected a donor`s decision and why he or she selected HLDN versus ODN.

Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed donor and allograft outcomes for the first 65 patients undergoing HLDN at our institution compared with those of 32 patients undergoing traditional ODN. Patient data were obtained from medical record reviews and telephone interviews.

Results: HLDN and ODN were successfully completed in 97 (100%) donors. No conversion to open operation occurred among the HLDN group. The mean (standard deviation) operative durations were 157.92 (23.79) minutes for HLDN and 103.21 (19.63) minutes for ODN (P = .000), and hospital stays were 5.00 (1.54) days for the HLDN group and 6.59 (0.79) days for the ODN group (P = .000). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in postoperative donor (P = .541) and recipient (P = .337) renal functions. The primary reason encouraging donors was family obligations and bonds (70.1%); the availability of HLDN did encourage the decision (29.9%). Although all renal donors were aware of the option of HLDN, 28 selected ODN because of financial reasons, another 4 patients due to safety concerns. The main reasons for choosing HLDN instead of ODN were less postoperative pain (60%) and cosmetic concerns (29.2%).

Conclusions: HLDN was safe and feasible to procure a normally functional organ for live donor transplantation. The availability of the HLDN approach did affect a donor`s decision. The main reason for choosing HLDN instead of ODN was less postoperative pain.
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