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Articles by M. Kashif
Total Records ( 5 ) for M. Kashif
  N. Yahya , M.N. Akhtar , A.F. Masuri and M. Kashif
  Electromagnetic (EM) detectors in Seabed Logging require very high sensitivity and high accuracy for hydrocarbon exploration. An earnest effort was done to develop an EM detector made of ZnO-Carbon Nano Tubes (CNTs) filled composite. Single phase ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized at calcining temperature of 250 and 350°C by self combustion and sol gel methods. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) was done to evaluate the phase and surface morphology of the samples. XRD result shows single phase structure with major peak of [101]. The morphology of ZnO is nanospheres in shape. Based on the characterization techniques, ZnO prepared by sol gel was taken as the best sample for the detection of EM waves. Polyvinyl alcohol was mixed with ZnO nanoparticels and carbon nanotubes to fabricate the EM composite detector. It has been observed that ZnO with CNTs fillers composite detector has the ability to enhance the detection of EM waves up to 70% comparing to those without fillers.
  M.N. Akhtar , N. Yahya , H. Daud , A. Shafie , H.M. Zaid , M. Kashif and N. Nasir
  Seabed logging is a new technology being implemented for deep target exploration. The technology uses electromagnetic (EM) wave where an antenna transmits EM wave into water layer underneath seabed and with resistivity characteristics of hydrocarbon reservoir, the wave is reflected and received by the detectors on the seafloor. However, the roughness of the sea caused by underwater sea current limits the transmission of EM wave. EM wave itself has its own attenuation in seawater that is 102 dBm and the underwater sea current has made it worst. In seabed logging technology, the vessel is towing the transmitter at a very slow speed (1.5 km h-1) with high EM wave energy for transmitting the waves of ~1250 A cm-2. Due to this large current more heat is generated. In this project, we propose an EM wave guide amplifier to be used to overcome these problems. The EM wave guide amplifier amplifies the wave without modifying the transmitter (antenna) circuit. Therefore lower energy is required for the transmitter and is sufficient for seabed logging technology. The thermionic cathode and molybdenum (Mo) anode with work function of 1 eV are selected to get higher amplification of EM wave. It is found that potential difference between the cathode and anode improves the electron acceleration in the wave guide amplifier. It has been observed that with the use of wave guide amplifier and with 20 Vpp supply to the transmitter at 5 MHz frequency, the wave received by receiver has been amplified up to 170%. The application of this new method in seabed logging shall reduce the heat generated and overcome the EM wave attenuation problems.
  N. Nasir , N. Yahya , M.N. Akhtar , M. Kashif , A. Shafie , H. Daud and H.M. Zaid
  Seabed Logging (SBL) is new technique to detect hydrocarbon reservoir under the sea bed. EM transmitter is used to transmit low frequency electromagnetic signals into the subsurface layers of the sea bed to detect different resistive layers. However, detection of resistivity contrast in different resistive layers for a deep target is still a challenge in SBL. Due to economical point of view a scaled tank with a scale factor of 2000 was built to study the resistivity contrast. In the scale tank experiment aluminium rod EM transmitter of length 50 cm is towed at 35 cm height from the bottom of the tank. Three receivers are placed at 25 cm from the bottom of the tank. A series of experiments were conducted with different resistive mediums such as (tap water, salt water and salt water with oil packets). The oil packets were placed at certain positions in the water tank. The electromagnetic field responses from different resistive layers were recorded by the receivers. Different response in the magnitude of magnetic field was observed by different resistive medium. It was also observed that the magnetic field strength had increased 50% for salt water and 150% for oil which clearly shows the resistivity contrast. Our preliminary results have shown that high resistive layers in a conductive medium can be detected by using the experimental set up.
  M. Kashif , N. Yahya , H.M. Zaid , A. Shafie , M. Jasamai , N. Nasir and M.N. Akhter
  This study describes electromagnetic heating of oil using curve transmitter with magnetic feeders in the radio frequency region. The transmitter was developed to focus the electromagnetic waves to the target. A series of experiments were done to find focus point of electromagnetic waves by using curve transmitter with magnetic feeders in water tank filled with brine at 15% salinity. The center of the transmitter has 184.4% higher magnetic field strength as compared to both end of the transmitter. Three magnetic feeders had resulted approximately 210% increased of magnetic field. The porosity and permeability of the core samples were also measured. Oil saturated core rock samples were kept in tank filled with brine of 15% salinity for efficient oil recovery. The EM waves emitted by the curve transmitter with 3 magnetic feeders were able to recover 43.71 (sample 1) and 59.26% of OIP (sample 2).
  H.M. Zaid , N.B. Yahya , M.N. Akhtar , M. Kashif , H. Daud , S. Brahim , A. Shafie , N.H.H.M. Hanif and A.A.B. Zorkepli
  Controlled Source Electromagnetic (CSEM) is a new technique used for hydrocarbons detection. This study focuses on One dimension (1D) modeling of hydrocarbon detection for onshore application using the principles of electromagnetic (EM) waves propagation. The transmitted frequency which is 0.25 Hz was used to characterize the hydrocarbon at 500 m, 1000 m and 1500 m. Electric fields detected by the receivers at 500, 1000 and 1500 m were 22.85, 20.4 and 17.1 V m-1, respectively which was determined by using 1D simulation. This non-seismic 1D modeling may provide alternative solution for hydrocarbon (HC) detection for oil and gas industry.
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