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Articles by M. Johnson
Total Records ( 3 ) for M. Johnson
  R. Dermott , D. Martchenko and M. Johnson
  The benthic community structure in the Bay of Quinte, eastern Lake Ontario, was examined over a 40 year period (1967–2006). Changes in species composition were examined using clustering and ordination analysis at a shallow upper bay site (6 m) and in the deeper lower bay site (32 m). Tubificidae and Chironomidae, which dominated the upper bay, responded to phosphorus reductions between 1978 and 1991 with increased diversity, and a return of pollution sensitive species. This response accelerated in 1993, after the arrival of Dreissena. Epibenthic Amphipoda, Gastropoda and Sphaeriidae increased in the upper bay between 1986–1999, but decreased following the arrival of the Round Goby (Apollonia melanostomus). The lower bay underwent a major change after 1994, when Quagga Mussel replaced the amphipod Diporeia as the dominant organism. Since 1990, non-dreissenid biomass decreased in the lower bay but has not significantly changed in the upper bay. Ordination showed that the community in the upper bay changed over time, and remained different from the lower bay community. In the lower bay and Lake Ontario, the benthic community greatly changed to one very different from the historical community of the Great Lakes.
  C.E. Lloyd , J. Sturt , M. Johnson , S. Mughal , G. Collins and A.H. Barnett
  AimsPrevious research in the UK has established the difficulty of recruiting and collecting information from individuals whose main language is spoken and does not have an agreed written form. The aims of this study were (i) to develop culturally competent translations of two questionnaires measuring diabetes self-care in languages with no written form and to establish their face validity and (ii) to develop acceptable methods of delivery with the potential for providing valid and reliable data for use in research studies. MethodsAdults with Type 2 diabetes from two minority ethnic groups whose main language is spoken (Sylheti and Mirpuri) were recruited via the Birmingham Heartlands hospital diabetes centre. Participants were invited to attend five focus groups to consider the content and method of delivery of two questionnaires measuring knowledge of diabetes and confidence in diabetes self-care. Delivery methods were (i) pen and paper self-completion in Bengali/Urdu, (ii) pen and paper assisted completion in spoken language, (iii) partially-assisted completion in spoken language, (iv) independent audio delivery in spoken language. ResultsCulturally competent content was achieved for both questionnaires in both languages. The Mirpuri men and women’s groups preferred assisted or partially assisted completion in spoken language. The Sylheti groups’ preference was for independent audio delivery in spoken language. ConclusionsThe face validity of two questionnaires measuring diabetes self-care is established for Sylheti and Mirpuri, in four alternative delivery formats. The questionnaires are now ready for psychometric testing in minority ethnic populations and the methods available for use by researchers to establish within-study feasibility.
  M. Johnson , R. Jones , C. Freeman , H. B. Woods , M. Gillett , E. Goyder and N. Payne
 

Objective

Randomized trials provide evidence that intensive lifestyle interventions leading to dietary and physical activity change can delay or prevent Type 2 diabetes. Translational studies have assessed the impact of interventions based on, but less intensive than, trial protocols delivered in community settings with high-risk populations. The aim of this review was to synthesize evidence from translational studies of any design to assess the impact of interventions delivered outside large randomized trials.

Methods

Medical and scientific databases were searched using specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies were included that used a tested diabetes preventive study protocol with an adult population at risk from Type 2 diabetes. Included papers were quality assessed and data extracted using recommended methods.

Results

From an initial 793 papers, 19 papers reporting 17 studies were included. Translational studies from a range of settings utilized a variety of methods. All were based on the US Diabetes Prevention Programme protocol or the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study, with modifications that increased feasibility and access. The main outcome that was reported in all studies was weight change. Weight loss, which occurred in all but one study, was greater in intervention arms than in control subjects. No consistent differences were found in blood glucose or waist circumference.

Conclusions

Translational studies based on the intensive diabetes prevention programmes showed that there is potential for less intensive interventions both to be feasible and to have an impact on future progression to diabetes in at-risk individuals.

 
 
 
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