Asian Science Citation Index is committed to provide an authoritative, trusted and significant information by the coverage of the most important and influential journals to meet the needs of the global scientific community.  
ASCI Database
308-Lasani Town,
Sargodha Road,
Faisalabad, Pakistan
Fax: +92-41-8815544
Contact Via Web
Suggest a Journal
Articles by M. Irshad
Total Records ( 7 ) for M. Irshad
  M. Inoue , B.A. Ould Ahmed , T. Saito and M. Irshad
  Recently the research on the determination of soil water content and electrical conductivity using automated technique has received tremendous attention. Selecting the type of system that should be used for soil water measurement under saline conditions depends on its precision. A laboratory study was carried out to measure the soil water content (θ) and soil solution electrical conductivity (ECw) using eight portable dielectric moisture probes namely ML1, ML2, MP4, WET, SK8, MIN, EC2 and SM2 and four profile probes namely ES, AG, P1 and P2. Air-dried Tottori sand dune soil was converted into saline by NaCl solutions of various concentrations. The out-put results of moisture probes showed that measurement accuracy was strongly dependent on the concentration of salt in the soil. Among the sensors WET, EC2 and ES exhibited higher sensitivity to the salts and over estimated water content by 0.04-0.08 cm3 cm-3 whereas MP4, WET, SM2, ES, AG and P1 sensors also over estimated the volumetric water content by 0.02-0.03 cm3 cm-3 at 3.83 dS m-1 soil salinity as compared to normal soil. Higher ECw increased the relative error of soil water measurement across the sensors. Among the moisture meters, commercially available ML1, ML2, SK8 and P2 gave sufficient accuracy in the presence of salts.
  A. Al-Busaidi , T. Yamamoto , M. Inoue , Y. Mori , M. Irshad and A. Zahoor
  Population growth and global warming would substantially impact the availability and quality of existing freshwater supplies. The utilization of marginal water resources for agriculture is getting considerable importance. The lands irrigated with saline water are required to reduce salts accumulations through leaching and/or drainage practices. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of saline irrigation and leaching fractions on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and salts accumulations in sand dune soil. For this purpose seawater was diluted to the salinity levels of 3 and 13 dS m-1 and applied by drip irrigation at 0.1 and 0.4 leaching fractions (LF). The results of the experiment showed that the saline water significantly impaired barley growth. Higher LF lowered the soil salinity and increased soil water contents. Both quantity and quality of water regulated salts distribution within the soil. The salts were found higher near or immediate below the soil surface. An enhanced LF carried more salts down the soil horizon. Low salts were accumulated in the vicinity of emitters as compared to distant wet area. Higher saline irrigation inhibited evaporation. Infiltration rate and hydraulic conductivity of soil were statistically unchanged across the treatments. Conjunctive use of marginal water at proportional LF could be effective to enhance the yield potential of crops in water scarce areas.
  M. Irshad , M. Inoue , M. Ashraf , Faridullah , Hossain K.M. Delower and A. Tsunekawa
  The natural resource base of land, water and vegetation in arid and semi arid areas is highly fragile and greatly vulnerable to degradation. There is a serious problem of desertification in many parts of Pakistan. Population pressure along with the demand for more food, fodder and fuelwood has generated a chain of interrelated economic, social and environmental issues associated with the land degradation inside Pakistan. A variety of natural and human factors are contributing to desertification and severely impairs the biological productivity of lands across the country, including dwindling vegetation cover, overgrazing, flooding, over exploitation of water and land resources, over cultivation of marginal lands, deforestation, soil erosion, salinization, sodication and the use of inappropriate technologies. Unsustainable agricultural activities including inadequate soil conservation, cultivation of steep slopes, cultivation without adequate fallow periods, unbalanced fertilizer use and improper irrigation management coupled with the misuse of prime agricultural land for urbanization/industrialization had a devastating impact on land resources. The increased pressure on land with low productivity and environmental pollution through industrial wastes has further exacerbated the prevailing condition. In spite of the concerted national efforts to mitigate the effects of drought, combating desertification is still one of the major challenges to the people of the country. The action necessary to help avert desertification is to educate people as to the value of precious land and water resources. The present deserted situation is directly related to the failures of the unrealistic resource management policies. Various approaches are being applied to arrest the menace of desertification. The institutional set-up for formulation and implementation of programs and policies is being strengthened in the country. Numbers of land reclamation projects have been launched. The activities and efforts already underway by several public and private organizations, departments, NGOs and rural support programs to combat desertification are required to be strengthened, integrated and supplemented through a nationally supported, coordinated and monitored system. This study reviews some of the causes of desertification, identifies the patterns of land degradation and highlights the future prospects of combating desertification in Pakistan.
  M. Irshad , M. Inoue , M. Ashraf and A. Al-Busaidi
  The natural resource base of land, water and vegetation in arid and semi arid areas is highly fragile and greatly vulnerable to degradation especially in the developing countries. The demand for water is constantly increasing as a result of population growth and the expansion of agriculture and industry. Fresh water resources are limited in the arid and semi-arid areas whereas the existing water resources are often overused and misused. The lack of water management in the arid areas generated numerous economic, social and ecological issues. Agriculture currently accounts for nearly 70-80% of water consumption in the developing countries. The productivity of water use in agriculture needs to enhance in order both to avoid exacerbating the water crisis and to prevent considerable food shortages. More efficient use of existing water resources and adequate management of soils could prove to be the effective tool for improving arid lands. The technologies, skills and capital resources required to overcome the poor and extreme distribution of water resources through storage and transfer are not available and widely used. As a consequence there is critically low access to water for agriculture, drinking and sanitation and the environment. Poor access to water is among the leading factors hindering sustainable development in semi-arid and arid regions. Conventional irrigation management should be revised to ensure maximum water productivity instead of land productivity for dry farming systems. Under conditions of increasing water scarcity, the key to sustaining rural livelihoods is improving the productivity and reliability of rainfed agriculture by using limited rainfall more productively, through optimal on-farm soil, water and crop management practices that conserve soil moisture and increase water use efficiency. Conserving and augmenting water supplies through rainwater harvesting and precision irrigation provide new opportunity for productive dry land farming. Without action, it has been reported that in 2025, two thirds of the world’s population would live in water stressed areas. One of the actions necessary to help avert water crisis is to educate people as to the value of this precious resource. A productive water-use system in arid and semiarid areas, where the annual rainfall is scanty, the evaporation rate is higher than precipitation and characterizes insufficient renewable water resources, is the urgent need of the farmers. This study reviews options available for improved utilization and management of water resources and examines the future prospects of sustainable agriculture in water scarce areas.
  Suhail Rasool , B.L. Jailkhani , M. Irshad , Madhuri Behari , Shahnaz Suhail and H. Shabirul
  High affinity β-bungarotoxin binding protein was purified from skeletal muscle of human cadaver by affinity chromatography using β-bungarotoxin as a ligand. The SDS-PAGE of purified protein revealed two major protein bands with molecular weight of 86 and 68 kD. The purified protein has a kD of 2.3±0.15 nmoles and binding sites of 34±2.3 f mole/mg tissue. Immunoreactivity profile of purified presynaptic receptor (β-bungarotoxin binding protein) from muscle with myasthenic sera was negatively affected by treatment with sodium-metaperiodate, glucosidase and trypsin, where as no effect was seen on treatment with lipase. This provides evidence that purified presynaptic receptor (β-bungarotoxin binding protein) is a glycoprotein.
  Muhammad Maqsood , Shakeel Ahmad , Aamir Ahmad and M. Irshad
  The present study was undertaken to determine a suitable growth stage of maize crop for the application of nitrogen fertilizer for maximising yield and yield components of maize under agro-climatic conditions of Faisalabad. Maximum grain yield (5.27 t ha–1) alongwith highest harvest index (37.00%) per hectare was obtained for the crop raised by split N fertilization i.e. 1/3 at sowing + 1/3 at lst irrigation + 1/3 at flowering and lowest grain yield (2.93 t ha–1) and harvest index (23.50%) in control.
  Suhail Rasool , Madhuri Behari , M. Irshad , Vinay Goyal and B.L. Jailkhani
  Using α-bungarotoxin (α -Bgtx) and β -bungarotoxin (β -Bgtx) to capture their corresponding proteins from preparation of crude human muscle receptor (triton extract), antibodies against these corresponding proteins were detected in Myasthenia gravis patients. α-Bgtx binds to AChR and β -Bgtx binds to presynaptic membrane receptor (PsmR) of triton extract. The captured proteins were used as antigen in indirect ELISA to detect the IgG antibodies against AChR and PsmR in sera from 146 Indian patients with MG and in 30 controls. Out of 146, 130 were generalised myasthenic patients (GM), 16 ocular Myasthenic patients (OMG). In addition to AChR antibodies, Myasthenia Gravis (MG) patients were also showing antibodies against PsmR. The frequency of anti-AChR antibodies was 71% and anti-PsmR antibodies was 65%. The OD values of GMG for AChR and PsmR were (0.76 ± 0.34) and (0.75 ±0.37), for OMG patients (0.32 ± 0.1) and (0.72 ± 0.42) and for healthy controls (0.16 ±0.06) and (0.18 ±0.04), respectively. These results showed that MG is not only due to the damage of the postsynaptic membrane, but it could concurrently be a consequence of antibody mediated damage of the presynaptic membrane, resulting particularly the damage of its β-Bgtx binding sites and could play an important role in the pathogenesis of MG. Therefore, it is also necessary to detect antibodies against PsmR in addition to AChR antibody.
Copyright   |   Desclaimer   |    Privacy Policy   |   Browsers   |   Accessibility