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Articles by M. Aslam
Total Records ( 17 ) for M. Aslam
  M. Imtiaz , B.J. Alloway , K.H. Shah , S.H. Siddiqui , M.Y. Memon , M. Aslam and P. Khan
  The effects of Zn on growth and growth components of wheat were studied in sand culture using hydroponics solution. Five Zn treatments were given to wheat along with other essential nutrients. The plants were stunted in the control pots and weaker than the plants treated with Zn due to Zn deficiency. The growth of plants, supplied 20 μg Zn ml-1 was also lower than the other Zn-treated plants. Well-defined Zn deficiency symptoms were not observed in wheat plants however copper deficiency symptoms were obvious when Zn was applied at the higher rate for a longer time. Dry matter of wheat increased by increasing rates of Zn up to 15 μg ml-1. Above these optimum rates, the higher rates of Zn application depressed the dry weight of crop. The plants from the control pots had lower Zn concentrations, which ranged between 15-16 μg g-1. The data also revealed that Zn concentration in the second growth stage (S2) was lower compared to the first growth stage (S1) and the uptake of Zn by the plants was higher as dry matter yield was higher for stage S2.
  M. Imtiaz , B.J. Alloway , K.H. Shah , S.H. Siddiqui , M.Y. Memon , M. Aslam and P. Khan
  The antagonistic effect of Zn and other micronutrients was studied in sand culture using Long Aston nutrient solution. Five levels of Zn were employed to wheat plant along with other essential plant nutrients. It was observed that Zn application had adverse effect on Fe concentration and Fe uptake in plant. Zinc deficient plants had significantly higher concentration of Fe. The results indicated that as the Zn concentration in the substrate was increased, the Fe concentrations in plants were decreased. Zinc also antagonised the uptake of Mn and Cu in the plants. Zinc had such a pronounced adverse effect on Cu concentration that its concentration dropped to deficiency level (3 μg ml-1). The roots always showed higher concentrations of these elements than shoots. The higher concentrations of trace elements were observed during first growth stage as compared with second growth stage.
  M. Aslam , Manzoor Hussain , M. Akhtar , M.S. Cheema and Liaquat Ali
  The study was conducted to evaluate the appropriate sowing time of newly evolved wheat varieties/cultivars under Bahawalpur conditions. The study included 6 sowing dates started form Ist November up to 15th January of year 1999-2000 to 2000-2001 with equal intervals of fifteen days and five varieties/cultivars viz., 2236, 2098, 2219 punjnad-1 with inqlab, 91 as standard one. Regardless of varieties/cultivars the best results were obtained when wheat was sown after Ist and before 15th November of year 1999 to 2000. However wheat variety punjnad-1 gave significantly higher weights in a wide range of sowing period i.e., Ist to 30th November. The highest mean grain yield of 5315 kg ha-1 was obtained when crop was sown on 15th November (D2) followed by 5268 kg ha-1 for sowing on Ist November (D1).
  M. Aslam , M. T. Elahi and N. Iqbal
  Attempts were made to incorporate intraploid interpsecific gene(s) from Gossyium barbadense into G. hirsutum through DNA-mediated embryo transformation approach. G. barbadense DNA was injected into the styles/ovaries of G. hirsutum, 24 hours after self pollination. Two phenotypic types of plants i.e. transformed and G. hirsutum like were observed in D population. The transformed plants had clearcut variations in boll weight, yield and other quality traits confirmed to recipient parent. D transformations were also heritable and were transmitted to D generation. The transformed plants had better boll weight (4.9 gm), better fibre fineness (3.9 μg/in) and better fibre strength (101.0 TPPSI) compared to the boll weight (3.0 gms), fibre fineness (4.5 μg/in) and fibre strength (91.0 TPPSI) of G. hirsutum. The transformation efficiency for quantitative traits was about 20 % where as low for qualitative traits like flower petals with red spot (0.08 %). In the present studies transformed genotypes illustrated higher yield potential and better fibre quality than the recipient (G. hirsutum) parent.
  M. Aslam , S. Ahmad , I.A. Mahmood and T. Sultan
  Groundnut variety BARD-699 produced significantly the most promising yield than that of variety BARI-89 at Attock, Fatehjang and NARC, Islamabad. Rhizobium strains, NC-92 was found to be less efficient as compared to TAL-1000; TAL-1371. Nodule dry mass and number of pods per plant were much higher than that of control treatment. Although a significant difference in growth and yield of both the varieties due to Rhizobium inoculation was observed but on average basis TAL-1000 and TAL-1371 gave significantly better response for both the varieties in improving growth and yield at all sites. Nevertheless, future prospects for groundnut production are good in Pakistan if the farmers are realized to practice inoculation technology in their fields.
  M. Aslam , I.A. Mahmood , T. Sultan and S. Ahmad
  In Pakistan the legumes are grown mostly in rain-fed areas of marginal lands where soil fertility and native rhizobial populations are low. The result is lower yield of legumes compared with other countries. The experiments carried out by the scientists of National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad and other research institutes, have shown significant yield increases of legumes by inoculation with appropriate rhizobium strains. In these experiments the highest yield increase was noted in case of soybean ranging 30-196 percent. Yield increase of chickpea and peas was generally in the range of 20-40 percent, whereas increase in case of other food legumes i.e., lentil, mung and mash was 10-20 percent. Although these yield increases are quite reasonable, the adoption of inoculant is almost negligible, not increasing beyond 20,000 ha per annum. The demand from farmers has not increased. The farmers and field workers are needed to be educated with the technology in order to enhance use of inoculants. The inoculant production in the country is far below than required but it could be easily increased many fold provided its demand is created. Also, field worker/farmers are not properly educated in their use. There is a strong need for the private sector to develop large-scale production facilities and supply of proper rhizobial inoculants for the various legumes grown in Pakistan.
  M. Aslam and M.T. Elahi
  M2 population was raised from M1 seed developed from the intraspecific crosses (NIAB-78 x REBA-288) with male parent pollen irradiated at 10Gy of gamma rays. Different mutants having higher yield, early maturity, short internode, resistant to CLCuV disease etc. were selected. These mutants were evaluated for yield potential and other economic traits in different segregating generations in comparison to then standard cotton varieties. Out of these, the mutant PIM-76-8 consistently out-yielded all the prevalent standard cotton varieties/parents i.e. CIM-240, CIM-448, CIM-443, NIAB-78 and Reba-288. On the average it gave 28.2% higher yield than the standard cotton variety CIM-443 in the micro-yield trials conducted at NIAB during 1998-99. Further evaluation of mutant, PIM-76-8 is in progress and the results are encouraging.
  M. Aslam and M.T.Elahi
  Fifty-three different indigenous genotypes of cotton screened for CLCuV disease and other traits were found not to be possessing good combination of desirable traits alongwith resistance to cotton leaf curl virus disease. It was noted that the genotypes carrying some identified novel genes of economic value can be manipulated and utilized for the synthesis of the requisite desirable genotypes which would better suit to the varying climatic conditions of the country. Out of the selected genotypes, Pak-3, Pak-7, Pak-13, Pak-28 and Pak-50 are being improved for specific lacking characters i.e. yield, earliness etc. to develop desirable genotypes to achieve the desired objectives. While other promising genotypes viz., Pak-23, Pak-25, Pak-27, Pak-48 and Pak-38 possessing some desirable traits but are susceptible to CLCuV disease are being utilized as valuable genepool in the project as well in our cross breeding programme. Moreover the existing germplasm resources will be further enhanced when the germplasm from Kazakhstan will be added to the existing one after the exchange with the local germplasm. Progress made, future strategies/problems, efforts relating to the project are being described and discussed.
  Yaseen, M. , R.H.N. Khan , M.A. Gill , A. Aziz , M. Aslam and A.R. Khan
  Genetic variability among eight rice cultivars was determined by conducting a solution culture experiment using modified Yoshida solution. Three Zn levels were developed by the addition of no DTPA (Zn1), 25 μ M DTPA (Zn2) and 50 μ M DTPA (Zn3) to 0.035 mg L–1 Zn. Substantial differences were observed among genotypes for accumulation of shoot dry weight (SDW), root dry weight (ROW), root: shoot ratio (RSR) as well as for zinc utilization efficiency (ZnUE). Overall Kernel genotype produced maximum SDW at all the three levels of Zn. In case of RDW genotypes Kernel, Kashmir and Basmati-370 produced maximum RDW, while DM-25 was least RDW producer. Highest RSR was exhibited by Kashmir followed by Kernel and Basmati-370. Genotypes Kernel, Basmati-370 and KS-282 showed maximum ZnUE compared to all other genotypes and could be regarded as Zn-efficient.
  M. Aslam , D. Hussain and Y. Zafar
  Among the OPM primers, OPM-17 did not give amplification, whereas the primers 01, 02, 03, 05, 08, 13, 14, and 15 did not show any polymorphism among the samples. Amongst the polymorphic OPM primers, the OPM-4, OPM11 and OPM-19 confirmed the introgression of DNA fragments of sizes, 750 bp, 1 kb and 750 by bands respectively of G. arboreum into G. hirsutum on molecular level. Whereas none of the 20 OPM primers showed polymorphism even between G. hirsutum and G. barbadense parents. Out of 12 OPB primers two primers OPB-3 and OPB-4 were found to be polymorphic between G. hirsutum and G. barbadense parents while 6 OPB primers (OPB-05, 06, 07, 08, 11 and 12) showed polymorphism between G. hirsutum and G.arboreum parents. However these polymorphic OPB primers could not detect polymorphism between parents and their transformed progenies. Therefore these studies have confirmed the introgression of G. arboreum DNA fragments into G.hirsutum through DNA macroinjection via DNA mediated embryo transformation technique.
  M. Aslam , M. T. Elahi and N. Iqbal
  The research studies were carried out to enhance the incorporation of G. arboreum and G. barbadense genes for disease resistance and quality traits respectively into G. hirsutum through DNA-mediated embryo transformation technique. The self fertilized flower/ovaries of the recipient were injected with the donors DNA solutions irradiated at low doses ie. 2.5 Gy of gamma rays. The result of D1 and D2 generation revealed the enhanced incorporation and preservation of the donor parent traits into the recipient. Higher percentage of CLCV resistant plants and plants with increased quality traits were obtained from the irradiation DNA treatments. The transformed genotypes had higher yield and other economic traits better as compared to recipient. Moreover the expression of qualitative traits of the donor i.e. petal spot, pollen colour and flower colours were observed in D2 generation.
  Nawaz , R.H. Qureshi , M. Aslam , J. Akhtar and S. Parveen
  A pot study was conducted to find out the wheat variety which can restrict the uptake of Na+ and CT- and prefer K+ under the dual stress of salinity and hypoxia. Matrix culture techniques were used to simulate the field conditions. Five wheat varieties were grown and salts (150 mol m-3 NaCl+ 15 mol m-3 CaCl2) were added to saline and saline-hypoxic treatments. Plants were harvested after a stress of four week and leaf sap was extracted from the youngest fully expanded leaf for Na+, K+ and Cl- determination. An increase in Na+ and Cl- concentration was observed in saline and saline-hypoxic treatments, while K+ concentration increased in saline and decreased in saline-hypoxic. Among the varieties, Blue silver and Chinese Spring showed a better control over ionic uptake compared with others.
  I.A. Mahmood and M. Aslam
  Soil Nitrogen and Organic Matter were determined before sowing and after the harvest of crops to assess the effect of wheat and chickpea growth on soil fertility. Chickpea crop utilized less soil N and NO3-N as compared to other crops even when nitrogen was applied but it caused a significant increase of nitrogen and organic matter in soil whereas wheat exhausted the nutrients. The total N and NO3-N level in the soil fell down much more in case of wheat cultivated without N application. The control treatment showed a slight fluctuation in measured parameters. Organic matter of the soil was ameliorated by crops grown over the season comparatively better by chickpea crop.
  M. Aslam , C. Jiang , R. Wright and A.H. Paterson
  The identification of molecular markers linked to leaf curl virus (CLCuV) disease resistance in cotton has the potential to improve both the efficiency and the efficacy of selection in cotton breeding programmes. Genetic analysis suggested that CLCuV resistance is controlled by a single dominant gene. In this study an interspecific F2 population derived from a cross of Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium hirsutum was phenotypically classified into CLCuV susceptible and resistant plants. A subset of these F2 plants was evaluated by selective genotyping, with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to identify DNA markers linked to the CLCuV resistance gene. Sixty seven F2 derived F3 families were evaluated for segregation at 137 RFLP loci. Three DNA marker loci, linked to each other, also showed significant association with CLCuV resistance. Sequencing of linked markers will permit locus-specific DNA primers for use in PCR-based identification of CLCuV-resistant plants in breeding populations.
  Jehan Zeb , Shahid Ahmad , M. Aslam and Badruddin
  This study revealed that the losses of water from the three watercourses were 27.11, 25.85 and 31.25 on total length basis and the losses on 100 meter length basis were 3.62, 3.15 and 4.47 percent, respectively. The conveyance efficiency worked out to be 72.89, 74.15 and 68.75 percent, respectively. The main causes responsible for water losses were leakages from naccas, curves in the watercourse (No.3), high density of vegetation, problem of siltation, deposition of sediments, weak and un-compacted banks, lack of maintenance and holes made by rodents. Improvements suggested were lining, proper inlet structures and regular periodical cleaning.
  Yaseen, M. , A. Aziz , M.A Gill , R.H.N. Khan , M. Aslam and A.R. Khan
  Ten rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes were evaluated for growth and utilization efficiency of phosphorus (P), in hydroponics using modified Yoshida solution containing three levels of phosphorus viz. P1 (10 mg L–1), P2 (5 mg L–1) and P3 (2.5 mg L–1). Substantial differences were observed among varieties for accumulation of shoot dry weight (SDW), root dry weight (RDW), root: shoot ratio (RSR) as well as for phosphorus utilization efficiency (PUE). Overall IR-8 and Basmati-370 out yielded all other genotypes in shoot dry weight. In Basmati-370 also produced the highest RDW, while KS-282 was least RDW producer. Maximum RSR was exhibited by C-49-1-80 followed by EF-76-1, DM-15-13-1 and Basmati-370. Maximum PUE was exhibited by Basmati-Pak followed by Kernel. P3 level showed highest value of PUE. Genotypes Basmati-Pak, Basmati-370 and Kernel showed maximum PUE as compared to all other genotypes and could be regarded as P-efficient.
  M. Aslam
  The locally well adapted cotton variety NIAB-78 was crossed with an exotic line REBA-288 with male parent pollen irradiated at 10 Gy of gamma rays before cross-pollinations to develop M0 seed. The M2 population was grown from M1 seed and different desirable mutants having higher yield, early maturity, short internode, resistant to CLCuV disease etc. were selected. These mutants were evaluated for yield potential and other economic traits in different segregated generations till uniformity was achieved. Of these the mutant PIM-76-8, later named as NIAB-98 was finally selected. The mutant NIAB-98 has a medium sized plant with suitable plant type and better leaf foliage. It is moderately hairy, early maturing, heat tolerant, has high yield potential and has acceptable fibre characteristics. At NIAB on the average, NIAB -98 gave 35.1 % higher yield than CIM-443, 9.1% higher yield than NIAB-Karishma, 35.8 % higher yield than CIM-482 respectively during the years 1998-99 to 2001-2. At farmers fields (3 years average) it gave 21.0, 16.1, 9.2 29.9 and 16.9% higher yield than CIM-443, NIAB-Karishma, CIM-482, CIM-446 and FH-900 was respectively during the years 1999-2002. In NCVT and DCR trials conducted by PCCC, Karachi and Director Cotton Research Institute Faisalabad, it showed wider adaptability right from Faisalabad down towards Sindh by ranking 4th in the NCVT -2000-2001 and in the DCR trials ranked 7th during 2000-2001 and 2nd during 2001-2002 respectively in the said trials. Moreover it showed early maturity, heat tolerance, relatively better tolerance to bollworms, particularly pink bollworm. It can escape the peak attack of the same due to its early maturity. It has higher oil and protein contents i.e. 24 and 28% respectively than leading/standard cotton varieties (CIM-433, CIM-446, CIM-482, CIM-473 and FH-900).
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