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Articles by M. R Petersen
Total Records ( 2 ) for M. R Petersen
  R Nuruddin , W. C Hadden , M. R Petersen and M. K. Lim

In South Asia, gender disparity in child mortality is highest in Pakistan. We examined the influence of child gender on household decision regarding health care.


Prevalence ratios were calculated for 3740 children aged 1–59 months from 92 randomly selected villages of rural Pakistan using a cluster-adjusted log-binomial model. Level 1 variables included child and household characteristics and level 2 included village characteristics.


There were 25 more girl deaths than boys per 1000 live births (95% CI: 13.9, 48.6) among post-neonates and 38 more among children aged 12–59 months (95% CI: 10.5, 65.5). However, in adjusted analysis, gender was not a significant predictor of illness reporting, visit to health facilities, choice of provider, hospitalization and health expenditure. Significant predictors of health care were child's age, illness characteristics, number of children in the family, household socio-economic status and absence of girls' school in the village.


Differential care seeking for boys and girls is not seen in Thatta despite clear differences in mortality ratios. This calls for more creative research to identify pathways for gender differential in child mortality. Factors identified as influencing child health care and amenable to modification include poverty alleviation and girls' education.

  K. W Hanley , M. R Petersen , K. L Cheever and L. Luo

1-Bromopropane (1-BP) has been marketed as an alternative for ozone depleting and other solvents; it is used in aerosol products, adhesives, metal, precision, and electronics cleaning solvents. Mechanisms of toxicity of 1-BP are not fully understood, but it may be a neurological and reproductive toxicant. Sparse exposure information prompted this study using 1-BP air sampling and urinary metabolites. Mercapturic acid conjugates are excreted in urine from 1-BP metabolism involving debromination. Research objectives were to evaluate the utility of urinary N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-L-cysteine (AcPrCys) for assessing exposure to 1-BP and compare it to urinary bromide [Br(–)] previously reported for these workers. Forty-eight-hour urine specimens were obtained from 30 workers at two factories where 1-BP spray adhesives were used to construct polyurethane foam seat cushions. Urine specimens were also obtained from 21 unexposed control subjects. All the workers' urine was collected into composite samples representing three time intervals: at work, after work but before bedtime, and upon awakening. Time-weighted average (TWA) geometric mean breathing zone concentrations were 92.4 and 10.5 p.p.m. for spraying and non-spraying jobs, respectively. Urinary AcPrCys showed the same trend as TWA exposures to 1-BP: higher levels were observed for sprayers. Associations of AcPrCys concentrations, adjusted for creatinine, with 1-BP TWA exposure were statistically significant for both sprayers (P < 0.05) and non-sprayers (P < 0.01). Spearman correlation coefficients for AcPrCys and Br(–) analyses determined from the same urine specimens were highly correlated (P < 0.0001). This study confirms that urinary AcPrCys is an important 1-BP metabolite and an effective biomarker for highly exposed foam cushion workers.

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