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Articles by M. Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak
Total Records ( 5 ) for M. Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak
  M. Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak
  Carbohydrate is one of the basic and an important food nutrient consumed worldwide. Like-wise Pakistani foods contain more carbohydrates than any other food nutrient consumed. Sometimes, Pakistani foods are devoid of protein and may contain only carbohydrates and fats as the major nutrients of the diet e.g. eating chapati (wheat bread) with potato curry. Certain non-communicable diseases can be avoided with adoption of proper healthier food habits and eating foods according to the needs of the body. These diseases are obesity, coronary heart disease, colonic cancer and gastrointestinal disorders (diverticular disease, constipation, hiatal hernia and hemorrhoids). Therefore complex carbohydrate should be an important constituent of our daily meal and it can be adopted for the management of certain diseases provided that it is used in proper amounts. Consumption of certain complex carbohydrates is associated with lower body weight, reduced blood cholesterol, reduced blood glucose and an increased crypt cell proliferation. Therefore, it is necessary and utmost important to know the various types of carbohydrates to enable us to decide to include carbohydrates in our daily food according to our health requirements. Not necessarily all the community need to know but at least those who are associated with nutrition and health management must know the beneficial as well as the harmful effects of carbohydrates.
  M. Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak , Alam Khan and M. Usman Khattak
  Male and female students residing in the on campus hostels were explained the aim and importance of this study. Among the students registered were 30 male and 30 female who volunteered to participate in this study. The age range of the registered students was 22 – 26 years. On the day of the registration the age, height and weight were recorded and at the same time, they were given food frequency questionnaires (FFQs). They were asked to record alternately for three days whatever they ate during the prescribed week. Out of sixty students 51 (22 male and 29 female) returned the FFQs and the rest were excluded from the study. From the anthropometry, the weight and height for the given ages were compared with the international standards. From the FFQs the energy and nutrients intake was calculated using the food composition table for all students and compared with the recommended nutrients intakes (RNIs) reported by the FAO/WHO for the same age, height and weight. The total energy consumption was more in the female students than in the male students. Eighty two percent of the male and 21% of the female students had lower energy intake than their RNIs for energy. Eighty two percent of the male students had lower relative energy from protein and 91% had lower energy from carbohydrate intake than their respective RNIs. Similarly, in 48% of the female students had lower relative energy from protein and 76% had lower energy from carbohydrate intake than their respective RNIs. The relative contribution of energy from fat was higher in 95 % of the male and 97 % of the female students than their RNIs. The mean mineral intake was lower both for male and female students with the exception that the intake of P was more than the RNIs by 18.4 and 11.5 % for the male and female students respectively. The mean Fe intake was more than the RNIs by 37.3% in male students. Similarly, the vitamins intake was lower as well, both in male and female students with exception that they were having higher intake for vitamin A and C. Apart from these nutrients, all the students surveyed had lower dietary intake of fibre and cholesterol. This study indicates that the students are at the risk of specific nutrient deficiencies and the energy requirement is mainly met through dietary fat intake instead of carbohydrate.
  Muhammad Abbas , Alam Khan and M. Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak
  The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of obesity in relation to diet and physical activity levels (PALs) in Tehsil Mardan, of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan. Three cities, three towns and three villages were selected from the whole Tehsil. Hundred households in each city, town and village were randomly selected. A male individual of above 30 years age from each selected household was interviewed. In this way a total of 900 male subjects were surveyed. The information collected include their height, weight, food intake for three alternate days, occupation and other activities. Prevalence of obesity was determined by Body Mass Index (BMI). The average values showed 7 and 34% prevalence of obesity (BMI = > 30) and overweight (BMI = 25-30), respectively in Tehsil Mardan. Prevalence of obesity and overweight was more in cities than towns and more in towns than villages. The average energy intake was 2522±449 kcal/day. The relative contribution of protein, fat and carbohydrate to the total energy intake was 12, 33 and 56%, respectively. The energy intake was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.799) and their PALs were negatively correlated with BMI (r = - 0.398). The present study alarms that obesity is becoming a major health problem of concern in Tehsil Mardan. Therefore, early nutritional interventions are required.
  Khalid Iqbal , Alam Khan and M. Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak
  The recognition of vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) is associated with history of an unrelenting search for the cause of the ancient hemorrhagic disease scurvy. Isolated in 1928, vitamin C is essential for the development and maintenance of connective tissues. It plays an important role in bone formation, wound healing and the maintenance of healthy gums. Vitamin C plays an important role in a number of metabolic functions including the activation of the B vitamin, folic acid, the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and the conversion of the amino acid, tryptophan, to the neurotransmitter, serotonin. It is an antioxidant that protects body from free radicals` damages. It is used as therapeutic agent in many diseases and disorders. Vitamin C protects the immune system, reduces the severity of allergic reactions and helps fight off infections.
  Alam Khan and M. Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak
  A balanced and energy-restricted diet, exercise and behavior modification are the usual approaches used for obesity. Islamic fasting, which has the components of energy restriction and behavior modification, could be a safe nutritional approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity. For this reason, the effect of Islamic Fasting, an abstention from Foods, fluids and sex from dawn to sunset, on food intake, body weight and blood chemistry was studied in ten healthy adult male human subjects. Foods and Fluids intake before and in the first and fourth week of Fasting were recorded. Body weight of the participants was noted before and at the last day of Fasting. Blood samples before, in the second and fourth week of Fasting and two weeks after Fasting were collected. The daily reduction in energy (Food intake) ranged from 200-1500 Kcal with an average value of 857± 410 Kcal. During the four weeks of Fasting, loss in body weight ranged from 0.5-6.0 Kg with an average value of 3.2±1.7 Kg. There were no significant differences in glucose, total protein, triglyceride and total, HDL and LDL cholesterol in the blood samples collected before, during and after the Fasting. The data suggest that Islamic Fasting is nutritionally safe and could be used as an effective strategy for prevention and control of obesity.
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